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NoExcuses
06-02-2007, 06:58 PM
A novel approach to fight PA infections in the lungs of people with CF is being tested in a new pilot study in the UK. Volunteers with CF will be given capsules of either garlic extract or placebo (olive oil) for 2 months and teh levels of bacteria in their sputum will be measured.

The potential of garlic extract as an antipseudomonal agent was supported by the results of a study conducted in Denmark. In that study, exposure of PA to garlic extract made the bacteria more sensitive to tobramycin and to immune defense system cells. The garlic extract also provided mice with more significant protection from PA lung infections.

Safety of the extract will be examined in addition to any potentially positive effects on weight and lung function


<a target=_blank class=ftalternatingbarlinklarge href="http://www.cff.org/aboutCFFoundation/NewsEvents/index.cfm?ID=5814&TYPE=1670">http://www.cff.org/aboutCFFoun....cfm?ID=5814&TYPE=1670</a>

NoExcuses
06-02-2007, 06:58 PM
A novel approach to fight PA infections in the lungs of people with CF is being tested in a new pilot study in the UK. Volunteers with CF will be given capsules of either garlic extract or placebo (olive oil) for 2 months and teh levels of bacteria in their sputum will be measured.

The potential of garlic extract as an antipseudomonal agent was supported by the results of a study conducted in Denmark. In that study, exposure of PA to garlic extract made the bacteria more sensitive to tobramycin and to immune defense system cells. The garlic extract also provided mice with more significant protection from PA lung infections.

Safety of the extract will be examined in addition to any potentially positive effects on weight and lung function


<a target=_blank class=ftalternatingbarlinklarge href="http://www.cff.org/aboutCFFoundation/NewsEvents/index.cfm?ID=5814&TYPE=1670">http://www.cff.org/aboutCFFoun....cfm?ID=5814&TYPE=1670</a>

NoExcuses
06-02-2007, 06:58 PM
A novel approach to fight PA infections in the lungs of people with CF is being tested in a new pilot study in the UK. Volunteers with CF will be given capsules of either garlic extract or placebo (olive oil) for 2 months and teh levels of bacteria in their sputum will be measured.

The potential of garlic extract as an antipseudomonal agent was supported by the results of a study conducted in Denmark. In that study, exposure of PA to garlic extract made the bacteria more sensitive to tobramycin and to immune defense system cells. The garlic extract also provided mice with more significant protection from PA lung infections.

Safety of the extract will be examined in addition to any potentially positive effects on weight and lung function


<a target=_blank class=ftalternatingbarlinklarge href="http://www.cff.org/aboutCFFoundation/NewsEvents/index.cfm?ID=5814&TYPE=1670">http://www.cff.org/aboutCFFoun....cfm?ID=5814&TYPE=1670</a>

NoExcuses
06-02-2007, 06:58 PM
A novel approach to fight PA infections in the lungs of people with CF is being tested in a new pilot study in the UK. Volunteers with CF will be given capsules of either garlic extract or placebo (olive oil) for 2 months and teh levels of bacteria in their sputum will be measured.

The potential of garlic extract as an antipseudomonal agent was supported by the results of a study conducted in Denmark. In that study, exposure of PA to garlic extract made the bacteria more sensitive to tobramycin and to immune defense system cells. The garlic extract also provided mice with more significant protection from PA lung infections.

Safety of the extract will be examined in addition to any potentially positive effects on weight and lung function


<a target=_blank class=ftalternatingbarlinklarge href="http://www.cff.org/aboutCFFoundation/NewsEvents/index.cfm?ID=5814&TYPE=1670">http://www.cff.org/aboutCFFoun....cfm?ID=5814&TYPE=1670</a>

NoExcuses
06-02-2007, 06:58 PM
A novel approach to fight PA infections in the lungs of people with CF is being tested in a new pilot study in the UK. Volunteers with CF will be given capsules of either garlic extract or placebo (olive oil) for 2 months and teh levels of bacteria in their sputum will be measured.

The potential of garlic extract as an antipseudomonal agent was supported by the results of a study conducted in Denmark. In that study, exposure of PA to garlic extract made the bacteria more sensitive to tobramycin and to immune defense system cells. The garlic extract also provided mice with more significant protection from PA lung infections.

Safety of the extract will be examined in addition to any potentially positive effects on weight and lung function


<a target=_blank class=ftalternatingbarlinklarge href="http://www.cff.org/aboutCFFoundation/NewsEvents/index.cfm?ID=5814&TYPE=1670">http://www.cff.org/aboutCFFoun....cfm?ID=5814&TYPE=1670</a>

NoExcuses
06-02-2007, 06:58 PM
A novel approach to fight PA infections in the lungs of people with CF is being tested in a new pilot study in the UK. Volunteers with CF will be given capsules of either garlic extract or placebo (olive oil) for 2 months and teh levels of bacteria in their sputum will be measured.

The potential of garlic extract as an antipseudomonal agent was supported by the results of a study conducted in Denmark. In that study, exposure of PA to garlic extract made the bacteria more sensitive to tobramycin and to immune defense system cells. The garlic extract also provided mice with more significant protection from PA lung infections.

Safety of the extract will be examined in addition to any potentially positive effects on weight and lung function


<a target=_blank class=ftalternatingbarlinklarge href="http://www.cff.org/aboutCFFoundation/NewsEvents/index.cfm?ID=5814&TYPE=1670">http://www.cff.org/aboutCFFoun....cfm?ID=5814&TYPE=1670</a>

imported_Darinsmom
06-02-2007, 07:13 PM
That's very interesting! Thank you for posting. I'm so thankful for the scientists, and everyone involved who are helping us everyday fight CF and coming up with new therapies!

Laurie
Darin 9 w/CF

imported_Darinsmom
06-02-2007, 07:13 PM
That's very interesting! Thank you for posting. I'm so thankful for the scientists, and everyone involved who are helping us everyday fight CF and coming up with new therapies!

Laurie
Darin 9 w/CF

imported_Darinsmom
06-02-2007, 07:13 PM
That's very interesting! Thank you for posting. I'm so thankful for the scientists, and everyone involved who are helping us everyday fight CF and coming up with new therapies!

Laurie
Darin 9 w/CF

imported_Darinsmom
06-02-2007, 07:13 PM
That's very interesting! Thank you for posting. I'm so thankful for the scientists, and everyone involved who are helping us everyday fight CF and coming up with new therapies!

Laurie
Darin 9 w/CF

imported_Darinsmom
06-02-2007, 07:13 PM
That's very interesting! Thank you for posting. I'm so thankful for the scientists, and everyone involved who are helping us everyday fight CF and coming up with new therapies!

Laurie
Darin 9 w/CF

imported_Darinsmom
06-02-2007, 07:13 PM
That's very interesting! Thank you for posting. I'm so thankful for the scientists, and everyone involved who are helping us everyday fight CF and coming up with new therapies!

Laurie
Darin 9 w/CF

mom2lillian
06-02-2007, 09:21 PM
thanks for the note, very interesting, this is on my 'to watch list'

mom2lillian
06-02-2007, 09:21 PM
thanks for the note, very interesting, this is on my 'to watch list'

mom2lillian
06-02-2007, 09:21 PM
thanks for the note, very interesting, this is on my 'to watch list'

mom2lillian
06-02-2007, 09:21 PM
thanks for the note, very interesting, this is on my 'to watch list'

mom2lillian
06-02-2007, 09:21 PM
thanks for the note, very interesting, this is on my 'to watch list'

mom2lillian
06-02-2007, 09:21 PM
thanks for the note, very interesting, this is on my 'to watch list'

dramamama
06-02-2007, 09:33 PM
Recenct studies show that in vivo garlic has immune modulating benefits...it increases glutathione AND raises gamma interferon. By doing these two things it stimulates the T(h)1 immune response and in effect turns off the T(h)2 response.

Research is now underway to determine the Best way to turn off the T(h)2 response in cystics....

Healthy cystics experience a T(h)1 immune response...while those who are sick experience a T(h)2 response. T(h)2 is characterized by low gamma interferon high interleukin 4, 5, 6, 10 and TNF alpha ...and low glutathione.

Interestingly, research now shows why zithromax is so beneficial to cf patients. It stimulates gamma interferon and modulates the immune syatem from a T(h)2 to a T(h)1 immune response.

Start looking for the many benefits of food in your fight against cf....

Probiotics, especially lactobacillus GG, turn on the type one rsponse T)h)1 and increase gamma interferon...and THAT is why they are so beneficial and how they decrease inflammation.

dramamama
06-02-2007, 09:33 PM
Recenct studies show that in vivo garlic has immune modulating benefits...it increases glutathione AND raises gamma interferon. By doing these two things it stimulates the T(h)1 immune response and in effect turns off the T(h)2 response.

Research is now underway to determine the Best way to turn off the T(h)2 response in cystics....

Healthy cystics experience a T(h)1 immune response...while those who are sick experience a T(h)2 response. T(h)2 is characterized by low gamma interferon high interleukin 4, 5, 6, 10 and TNF alpha ...and low glutathione.

Interestingly, research now shows why zithromax is so beneficial to cf patients. It stimulates gamma interferon and modulates the immune syatem from a T(h)2 to a T(h)1 immune response.

Start looking for the many benefits of food in your fight against cf....

Probiotics, especially lactobacillus GG, turn on the type one rsponse T)h)1 and increase gamma interferon...and THAT is why they are so beneficial and how they decrease inflammation.

dramamama
06-02-2007, 09:33 PM
Recenct studies show that in vivo garlic has immune modulating benefits...it increases glutathione AND raises gamma interferon. By doing these two things it stimulates the T(h)1 immune response and in effect turns off the T(h)2 response.

Research is now underway to determine the Best way to turn off the T(h)2 response in cystics....

Healthy cystics experience a T(h)1 immune response...while those who are sick experience a T(h)2 response. T(h)2 is characterized by low gamma interferon high interleukin 4, 5, 6, 10 and TNF alpha ...and low glutathione.

Interestingly, research now shows why zithromax is so beneficial to cf patients. It stimulates gamma interferon and modulates the immune syatem from a T(h)2 to a T(h)1 immune response.

Start looking for the many benefits of food in your fight against cf....

Probiotics, especially lactobacillus GG, turn on the type one rsponse T)h)1 and increase gamma interferon...and THAT is why they are so beneficial and how they decrease inflammation.

dramamama
06-02-2007, 09:33 PM
Recenct studies show that in vivo garlic has immune modulating benefits...it increases glutathione AND raises gamma interferon. By doing these two things it stimulates the T(h)1 immune response and in effect turns off the T(h)2 response.

Research is now underway to determine the Best way to turn off the T(h)2 response in cystics....

Healthy cystics experience a T(h)1 immune response...while those who are sick experience a T(h)2 response. T(h)2 is characterized by low gamma interferon high interleukin 4, 5, 6, 10 and TNF alpha ...and low glutathione.

Interestingly, research now shows why zithromax is so beneficial to cf patients. It stimulates gamma interferon and modulates the immune syatem from a T(h)2 to a T(h)1 immune response.

Start looking for the many benefits of food in your fight against cf....

Probiotics, especially lactobacillus GG, turn on the type one rsponse T)h)1 and increase gamma interferon...and THAT is why they are so beneficial and how they decrease inflammation.

dramamama
06-02-2007, 09:33 PM
Recenct studies show that in vivo garlic has immune modulating benefits...it increases glutathione AND raises gamma interferon. By doing these two things it stimulates the T(h)1 immune response and in effect turns off the T(h)2 response.

Research is now underway to determine the Best way to turn off the T(h)2 response in cystics....

Healthy cystics experience a T(h)1 immune response...while those who are sick experience a T(h)2 response. T(h)2 is characterized by low gamma interferon high interleukin 4, 5, 6, 10 and TNF alpha ...and low glutathione.

Interestingly, research now shows why zithromax is so beneficial to cf patients. It stimulates gamma interferon and modulates the immune syatem from a T(h)2 to a T(h)1 immune response.

Start looking for the many benefits of food in your fight against cf....

Probiotics, especially lactobacillus GG, turn on the type one rsponse T)h)1 and increase gamma interferon...and THAT is why they are so beneficial and how they decrease inflammation.

dramamama
06-02-2007, 09:33 PM
Recenct studies show that in vivo garlic has immune modulating benefits...it increases glutathione AND raises gamma interferon. By doing these two things it stimulates the T(h)1 immune response and in effect turns off the T(h)2 response.

Research is now underway to determine the Best way to turn off the T(h)2 response in cystics....

Healthy cystics experience a T(h)1 immune response...while those who are sick experience a T(h)2 response. T(h)2 is characterized by low gamma interferon high interleukin 4, 5, 6, 10 and TNF alpha ...and low glutathione.

Interestingly, research now shows why zithromax is so beneficial to cf patients. It stimulates gamma interferon and modulates the immune syatem from a T(h)2 to a T(h)1 immune response.

Start looking for the many benefits of food in your fight against cf....

Probiotics, especially lactobacillus GG, turn on the type one rsponse T)h)1 and increase gamma interferon...and THAT is why they are so beneficial and how they decrease inflammation.

mom2lillian
06-02-2007, 09:57 PM
dramamama-please site yoru sources <img src="i/expressions/face-icon-small-happy.gif" border="0">! I know you do good research, so I trust you, but I like to read everything too! I also have another board for P67L that I post alot on abotu supplements and the like so I like to 'steal' your work LOL. Actually I have posted that alot articles I post are 'secondhand'.

thanks

mom2lillian
06-02-2007, 09:57 PM
dramamama-please site yoru sources <img src="i/expressions/face-icon-small-happy.gif" border="0">! I know you do good research, so I trust you, but I like to read everything too! I also have another board for P67L that I post alot on abotu supplements and the like so I like to 'steal' your work LOL. Actually I have posted that alot articles I post are 'secondhand'.

thanks

mom2lillian
06-02-2007, 09:57 PM
dramamama-please site yoru sources <img src="i/expressions/face-icon-small-happy.gif" border="0">! I know you do good research, so I trust you, but I like to read everything too! I also have another board for P67L that I post alot on abotu supplements and the like so I like to 'steal' your work LOL. Actually I have posted that alot articles I post are 'secondhand'.

thanks

mom2lillian
06-02-2007, 09:57 PM
dramamama-please site yoru sources <img src="i/expressions/face-icon-small-happy.gif" border="0">! I know you do good research, so I trust you, but I like to read everything too! I also have another board for P67L that I post alot on abotu supplements and the like so I like to 'steal' your work LOL. Actually I have posted that alot articles I post are 'secondhand'.

thanks

mom2lillian
06-02-2007, 09:57 PM
dramamama-please site yoru sources <img src="i/expressions/face-icon-small-happy.gif" border="0">! I know you do good research, so I trust you, but I like to read everything too! I also have another board for P67L that I post alot on abotu supplements and the like so I like to 'steal' your work LOL. Actually I have posted that alot articles I post are 'secondhand'.

thanks

mom2lillian
06-02-2007, 09:57 PM
dramamama-please site yoru sources <img src="i/expressions/face-icon-small-happy.gif" border="0">! I know you do good research, so I trust you, but I like to read everything too! I also have another board for P67L that I post alot on abotu supplements and the like so I like to 'steal' your work LOL. Actually I have posted that alot articles I post are 'secondhand'.

thanks

Mommafirst
06-02-2007, 10:56 PM
Very interesting. I wonder if in cultures where garlic is a higher staple in their diets if the incidence of resistant pseudomonas is lower than in cultures where garlic is not used as liberally.

Mommafirst
06-02-2007, 10:56 PM
Very interesting. I wonder if in cultures where garlic is a higher staple in their diets if the incidence of resistant pseudomonas is lower than in cultures where garlic is not used as liberally.

Mommafirst
06-02-2007, 10:56 PM
Very interesting. I wonder if in cultures where garlic is a higher staple in their diets if the incidence of resistant pseudomonas is lower than in cultures where garlic is not used as liberally.

Mommafirst
06-02-2007, 10:56 PM
Very interesting. I wonder if in cultures where garlic is a higher staple in their diets if the incidence of resistant pseudomonas is lower than in cultures where garlic is not used as liberally.

Mommafirst
06-02-2007, 10:56 PM
Very interesting. I wonder if in cultures where garlic is a higher staple in their diets if the incidence of resistant pseudomonas is lower than in cultures where garlic is not used as liberally.

Mommafirst
06-02-2007, 10:56 PM
Very interesting. I wonder if in cultures where garlic is a higher staple in their diets if the incidence of resistant pseudomonas is lower than in cultures where garlic is not used as liberally.

dramamama
06-02-2007, 10:58 PM
Unfortunately they are all in my computer so here goes the long list.....

I am not really sure what all I have included here because I don't have them grouped appropriately on my mac...

I just convinced my doc to test my gamma interferon level, if it is low, we are probably going to start trying to increase it by medical intervention. The study conducted by Richard Moss on inhaled gamma interferon in cf was flawed in a sense because it did not test gsh and NO production. It also did not test cfers with mycobaterial disease. It was proven safe although there were no positive effects on fev1, bacterial load or inflammatory markers.
Gamma Interferon is used as an adjunct therapy for drug resistant TB and mycos in cf...especially in DENMARK where they are not afraid to test substances your body needs in order to fight illness.


....I wote a summary "paper" and included over 100 studies on the importance of gamma interferon in the stimulation of Th1 response in cf. Gluathione levels and gamma interferon levels are 100 dependant on one another for their function. As one decreases so will the other. I am going to include a link on TB, AIDS gutathione and NAC that I have posted before. If you have cf and have been on steroids lately, there is a direct link between steroids and mycobacterial disease.....steroids suppress gamma interferon the NUMBER 1 DEFENCE your body has to protect against MAC, M.abscessus, m. fortuitum..and many more. Gamma interferon fights intracellular bacteria. Interestingly, a by product of pseudo actually inactivates gamma interferon...so, we have that going for us as well.<img src="i/expressions/face-icon-small-smile.gif" border="0">

Also, I can send you what I have put together for my various docs....if you would like that.

1: Mediators Inflamm. 2004 Apr;13(2):111-7. Links
Anti-inflammatory and immunomodulating effects of clarithromycin in patients with cystic fibrosis lung disease.

Pukhalsky AL,
Shmarina GV,
Kapranov NI,
Kokarovtseva SN,
Pukhalskaya D,
Kashirskaja NJ.
Research Center for Medical Genetics, Moscow, Russia. [email protected]
BACKGROUND AND AIM: Macrolide antibiotics are widely used in the treatment of suppurative lung diseases including cystic fibrosis (CF), the most common inherited fatal disease in the Caucasian population. This condition is characterized by secondary Pseudomonas infection resulting in neutrophil infiltration within the airways. The aim of the study was to investigate the evolution of inflammatory process in CF patients receiving long-term clarithromycin therapy. METHODS: Twenty-seven CF patients (mean age, 12 years) were enrolled into the study. Beside the basic therapy the patients were treated with clarithromycin at a dose of 250 mg every other day orally. All patients were routinely examined every 3 months. Blood and sputum were collected before clarithromycin treatment and then again 3, 6 and 12 months after the drug prescription. Cytokine concentrations (tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin-8, interleukin-4, interferon-gamma) in the sputum and plasma were assayed. Peripheral blood lymphocyte response to phytohemagglutinin was also evaluated. RESULTS: Clarithromycin treatment resulted in a marked reduction of the cytokine levels both in the sputum and plasma specimens. At the same time, the interferon-gamma/interleukin-4 ratio has been significantly elevated. In addition, a sustained increase of peripheral blood lymphocyte response to phytohemagglutinin was demonstrated. These changes were associated with a significant improvement of the lung function. CONCLUSIONS:<b> The beneficial effect of the prolonged treatment of CF patients with a 14-membered ring macrolide antibiotic clarithromycin seems to be associated not only with down-regulation of the inflammatory response, but also with immunological changes including the switch from Th2 to Th1 type response.</b>

1: Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2007 Apr 6;355(2):471-6. Epub 2007 Feb 7. Links
Allicin-induced suppression of Mycobacterium tuberculosis 85B mRNA in human monocytes.

Hasan N,
Siddiqui MU,
Toossi Z,
Khan S,
Iqbal J,
Islam N.
Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, J.N. Medical College, A.M.U., Aligarh 202002, U.P., India.
Despite of encountering a robust immune response, Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) successfully survives and persists in the human host. We investigated the early regulation of MTB 85B gene by allicin in MTB-infected human monocytes. During the first 24h of infection, levels of both MTB 85B intracellular mRNA and secreted protein were significantly down-regulated by allicin in a dose-dependent manner, which was mediated by inhibition of glutathione and NF-kappaB pathway. Allicin-induced MTB 85B suppression correlated with suppression of TNF-alpha released from infected monocytes. <b>The allicin-induced up-regulation of glutathione and IFN-gamma with simultaneous decrease in TNF-alpha supports the anti-inflammatory property of allicin by elicitation of protective immune response. Thus, allicin may prove to be valuable in the containment of MTB and therefore be useful as an adjunct in treatment of tuberculosis.</b>
PMID: 17303073 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Differential cytokine profile in children with cystic fibrosis.

Brazova J,
Sediva A,
Pospisilova D,
Vavrova V,
Pohunek P,
Macek M Jr,
Bartunkova J,
Lauschmann H.
Institute of Immunology, University Hospital Motol, Prague, Czech Republic. [email protected]
The previously observed occurrence of antineutrophil cytoplasmic autoantibodies (ANCA) in patients who have cystic fibrosis (CF), together with the reported decrease in IgG2, a Th1-controlled isotype, suggests a potential for Th1/Th2 imbalance in CF patients with a possible Th2 predominance. 48 CF patients and 16 controls had levels of IFNgamma, IL-4, and IL-10 measured in supernatants of whole blood cell cultures stimulated by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and phytohemaglutinine (PHA). The patients were divided into 2 groups: "low responders", having negligible secretion of cytokines (IFNgamma: 10.0-200.0 pg/ml, IL-4: 0.0-0.3 pg/ml) and "high responders", producing high levels of both IFNgamma (500.0-2000.0 pg/ml) and IL-4 (1.0-200.0 pg/ml). <b>There was a statistically significant (P < 0.01) deterioration of lung function measured by an FEV(1) decline by 11.2% over 3 years in the "low responder" group. 10 of 16 "low responders" had chronic lung infections with P. aeruginosa while such infection was less prevalent in the "high responder" group where only 13 of 32 CF patients had positive cultures. A shift towards Th2 response was observed in the "high responder" group as children chronically infected with P. aeruginosa had greater IL-4 production than non-infected CF patients within the same cohort. ANCA autoantibodies were found only in the "high responder" group. Th2 immune response predominance in a subset of CF patients is associated with chronic P. aeruginosa infection.
</b>PMID: 15885645 [PubMed -

1: J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2007 Jan;119(1):192-8. Epub 2006 Oct 23. Links
Probiotics and prebiotic galacto-oligosaccharides in the prevention of allergic diseases: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.

Kukkonen K,
Savilahti E,
Haahtela T,
Juntunen-Backman K,
Korpela R,
Poussa T,
Tuure T,
Kuitunen M.
Skin and Allergy Hospital, University of Helsinki, Finland. [email protected]
BACKGROUND: The increase in allergic diseases is attributed to a relative lack of microbial stimulation of the infantile gut immune system. Probiotics, live health-promoting microbes, might offer such stimulation. OBJECTIVE: We studied the effect of a mixture of 4 probiotic bacterial strains along with prebiotic galacto-oligosaccharides in preventing allergic diseases. METHODS: We randomized 1223 pregnant women carrying high-risk children to use a probiotic preparation or a placebo for 2 to 4 weeks before delivery. Their infants received the same probiotics plus galacto-oligosaccharides (n = 461) or a placebo (n = 464) for 6 months. At 2 years, we evaluated the cumulative incidence of allergic diseases (food allergy, eczema, asthma, and allergic rhinitis) and IgE sensitization (positive skin prick test response or serum antigen-specific IgE level >0.7 kU/L). Fecal bacteria were analyzed during treatment and at age 2 years. RESULTS: Probiotic treatment compared with placebo showed no effect on the cumulative incidence of allergic diseases but tended to reduce IgE-associated (atopic) diseases (odds ratio [OR], 0.71; 95% CI, 0.50-1.00; P = .052). Probiotic treatment reduced eczema (OR, 0.74; 95% CI, 0.55-0.98; P = .035) and atopic eczema (OR, 0.66; 95% CI, 0.46-0.95; P = .025). Lactobacilli and bifidobacteria more frequently (P < .001) colonized the guts of supplemented infants. CONCLUSION: Probiotic treatment showed no effect on the incidence of all allergic diseases by age 2 years but significantly prevented eczema and especially atopic eczema. The results suggest an inverse association between atopic diseases and colonization of the gut by probiotics. CLINICAL IMPLICATIONS: The prevention of atopic eczema in high-risk infants is possible by modulating the infant's gut microbiota with probiotics and prebiotics.

: APMIS. 2005 Jun;113(6):400-9. Links
Serum concentrations of GM-CSF and G-CSF correlate with the Th1/Th2 cytokine response in cystic fibrosis patients with chronic Pseudomonas aeruginosa lung infection.

Moser C,
Jensen PO,
Pressler T,
Frederiksen B,
Lanng S,
Kharazmi A,
Koch C,
Hoiby N.
Department of Clinical Microbiology, Rigshospitalet, University Hospital, Copenhagen, Denmark. [email protected]
<b>The inflammation in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients with chronic Pseudomonas aeruginosa lung infection is dominated by polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs). There seems to be a relationship between the PMN-dominated inflammation, pronounced antibody production and a Th2-dominated response</b>. Apart from mobilizing monocytes and PMNs from the bone marrow, GM-CSF, G-CSF and IL-3 select subsets of dendritic cells, which subsequently induce distinct Th responses. Therefore, the present study examines the correlation between the mobilizing cytokines in serum and the Th responses. The IFN-gamma and IL-4 production by peripheral blood mononuclear cells, and the concentrations of GM-CSF and G-CSF in serum as well as lung function, were determined in 37 CF patients with and 6 CF patients without chronic P. aeruginosa lung infection. <b>The GM-CSF/G-CSF ratio correlated both with the IFN-gamma production and good lung function. In addition, an inverse correlation between IL-3 and IFN-gamma was observed. The results indicate involvement of endogenous GM-CSF, G-CSF and IL-3 in the skewed Th response in CF, and change to a Th1-dominated response might be achieved with GM-CSF treatment.
</b>PMID: 1599615

New Lactococcus strain with immunomodulatory activity: Enhancement of Th1-type immune response
Auteur(s) / Author(s)
KIMOTO Hiromi ; MIZUMACHI Koko ; OKAMOTO Takashi ; KURISAKI Jun-Ichi ;
Résumé / Abstract
Few studies exist dealing with the probiotic activity of lactococci, which are commonly used as starter bacteria in the manufacture of many kinds of fermented dairy products. Fifteen strains of the genus Lactococcus were examined for their probiotic activities, such as immunomodulatory effects. Six strains induced the production of cytokines (IL-12, IL-6, and TNF-?) in macrophage-like cell line J774.1, and the highest induction was observed with Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis G50. The cytokine induction in the J774.1 cell line was almost entirely sustained after heat-killing of the strain. Spleen cells from BALB/c mice fed G50 culture produced more IL-12 and IFN-? and slightly less IL-4 and IL-6 than the control (i.e., without strain G50), indicating that strain G50 can enhance Th1-type immune response in vivo. The effect of the oral administration of strain G50 on antibody response in mice was also investigated. Mice were immunized with ovomucoid (OVM), a potent egg allergen, and the antibody level in the serum was then determined. The total IgE antibody level in the group treated with strain G50 was significantly lower than that of the control. The response of OVM-specific IgG1 and IgE antibodies tended to be low in the group that was administered strain G50, compared with the response of the control group. These results suggest that strain G50 has an ability to suppress the Th2 response. Thus, Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis G50 is a potential probiotic strain for the suppression of hypersensitive reactions caused by the Th2 response.

: J Agric Food Chem. 2006 Mar 8;54(5):1822-8. Links
Characterization of the volatile composition of essential oils of some lamiaceae spices and the antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of the entire oils.

Bozin B,
Mimica-Dukic N,
Simin N,
Anackov G.
Department of Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, University of Novi Sad, Serbia and Montenegro.
The essential oils of Ocimum basilicum L., Origanum vulgare L., and Thymus vulgaris L. were analyzed by means of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and assayed for their antioxidant and antimicrobial activities. The antioxidant activity was evaluated as a free radical scavenging capacity (RSC), together with effects on lipid peroxidation (LP). RSC was assessed measuring the scavenging activity of the essential oils on 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazil (DPPH(*)) and OH(*) radicals. Effects on LP were evaluated following the activities of essential oils in Fe(2+)/ascorbate and Fe(2+)/H(2)O(2) systems of induction. Essential oils exhibited very strong RSCs, reducing the DPPH radical formation (IC(50)) in the range from 0.17 (oregano) to 0.39 microg/mL (basil). The essential oil of T. vulgaris exhibited the highest OH radical scavenging activity, although none of the examined essential oils reached 50% of neutralization (IC(50)). All of the tested essential oils strongly inhibited LP, induced either by Fe(2+)/ascorbate or by Fe(2+)/H(2)O(2). The antimicrobial activity was tested against 13 bacterial strains and six fungi. <b>The most effective antibacterial activity was expressed by the essential oil of oregano, even on multiresistant strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli. A significant rate of antifungal activity of all of the examined essential oils was also exhibited.</b>

Int Arch Allergy Immunol. 2007 Feb 9;143(3):237-244 [Epub ahead of print] Links
Probiotics Have a Different Immunomodulatory Potential in vitro versus ex vivo upon Oral Administration in Children with Food Allergy.

Flinterman AE,
Knol EF,
van Ieperen-van Dijk AG,
Timmerman HM,
Knulst AC,
Bruijnzeel-Koomen CA,
Pasmans SG,
van Hoffen E.
Department of Dermatology and Allergology, UMC Utrecht, Utrecht, The Netherlands.
Background: Previous studies suggest that administration of probiotics in vitro can stimulate regulatory and Th1 immune responses. We studied both the in vitro immunological effects of probiotics and the ex vivo immunological effects after oral administration of probiotics in children with food allergy, a Th2-mediated disease. Methods: Thirteen children were enrolled. Probiotics (n = 7) or placebo (n = 6) were orally administered during 3 months. At baseline and after 1 and 3 months, peripheral blood mononuclear cells were stimulated with crude peanut extract, anti-CD3, or anti-CD40 and IL-4 in the presence (in vitro response) or absence (ex vivo response) of probiotics. The proliferation and production of IFN-gamma, IL-5, IL-13, IL-10, TNF-alpha, IL-6 and IgE were analyzed. Sensitization to peanut, cow's milk and hen's egg was determined before and after treatment. Results: The in vitro addition of probiotics to peripheral blood mononuclear cell cultures resulted in enhanced proliferation and production of IFN-gamma, IL-10 and TNF-alpha. After oral treatment, proliferation in the presence of probiotics increased, whereas in vitro IgE production decreased in the probiotics group compared to baseline. The ex vivo production of IL-10, TNF-alpha and IL-6 tended to decrease. Th1 and Th2 cytokines were not altered. Sensitization remained unchanged. Conclusion: Probiotics enhanced the production of Th1 and regulatory cytokines in vitro. Oral administration of probiotics resulted in a slightly decreased ex vivo production of IL-10, TNF-alpha and IL-6. This indicates that probiotics have a different potential to modulate the immune response in vitro versus ex vivo.

: Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol. 1995;252 Suppl 1:S59-60. Links
Cytokines in neutrophil-dominated airway inflammation in patients with cystic fibrosis.

Schuster A,
Haarmann A,
Wahn V.
Department of Pediatrics, University of Dusseldorf, Germany.
Bronchopulmonary disease in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) is a paradigm of neutrophil-dominated airway inflammation. We hypothesized that proinflammatory cytokines contribute to a localized neutrophil-dominated inflammatory state as present in CF airways. In a cross-sectional study, we analyzed 63 sputum samples from 33 CF patients for concentrations of the cytokines interleukin-1 alpha (IL-1 alpha), IL-1 beta, IL-8, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), and granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) by means of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Furthermore, the activity of neutrophil elastase (NE) in the sputum samples was determined using a specific chromogenic substrate. Compared to sputum samples from 10 healthy controls, there were significantly increased concentrations of IL-1 beta, IL-8 and TNF-alpha in the CF sputum samples. The concentration of IL-8 correlated significantly with NE activity in the CF sputum samples. In CF patients with airways chronically colonized with Pseudomonas aeruginosa, IL-8 concentrations in sputum were significantly enhanced. In glucocorticoid-treated patients, IL-1 alpha and G-CSF sputum concentrations were significantly lower when compared to levels in the other patients. These results show that there are high concentrations of proinflammatory cytokines in CF airways which may contribute to the localized neutrophil-dominated inflammatory state found clinically.

J Cyst Fibros. 2006 Aug;5(3):145-51. Epub 2006 Feb 28. Links
Increased serum concentration of G-CSF in cystic fibrosis patients with chronic Pseudomonas aeruginosa pneumonia.

Jensen PO,
Moser C,
Kharazmi A,
Presler T,
Koch C,
Hoiby N.
Department of Clinical Microbiology, University of Copenhagen, Denmark. [email protected] <[email protected]>
BACKGROUND: Chronic Pseudomonas aeruginosa lung infection is the major reason for premature death in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). Infected patients experience a progressive deterioration of the lung tissue caused by a persistent accumulation of PMNs. We investigated if the pulmonary accumulation of PMNs is reflected as a migration of PMNs through the blood in chronically infected CF patients. METHODS: Blood and sputum samples from 37 stable, chronically (CF+P) and 6 non-infected (CF-P) CF patients without exacerbations were compared using FACS, leukocyte counting, and ELISA. Within the CF+P patients, the blood parameters were compared to the lung function (FEV1 and FVC) and to the sputum. Similar measurements were performed on 15 chronically infected CF patients before and after elective antibiotic treatment. RESULTS: In the CF+P patients the concentration of G-CSF in the sera and PMNs in the blood was increased and correlated to poor lung function. However, only the concentration of G-CSF in the sera was correlated to the concentration of TNF-alpha in the sputum. After the antibiotic treatment, the lung function was improved and the concentration of PMNs in the blood and G-CSF in the sera was reduced. CONCLUSION: <b>G-CSF in the sera may contribute to the pulmonary inflammation in CF patients with chronic P. aeruginosa lung infection by regulating the number of PMNs available for migration and may be considered as an indicator of clinical status.</b>

dramamama
06-02-2007, 10:58 PM
Unfortunately they are all in my computer so here goes the long list.....

I am not really sure what all I have included here because I don't have them grouped appropriately on my mac...

I just convinced my doc to test my gamma interferon level, if it is low, we are probably going to start trying to increase it by medical intervention. The study conducted by Richard Moss on inhaled gamma interferon in cf was flawed in a sense because it did not test gsh and NO production. It also did not test cfers with mycobaterial disease. It was proven safe although there were no positive effects on fev1, bacterial load or inflammatory markers.
Gamma Interferon is used as an adjunct therapy for drug resistant TB and mycos in cf...especially in DENMARK where they are not afraid to test substances your body needs in order to fight illness.


....I wote a summary "paper" and included over 100 studies on the importance of gamma interferon in the stimulation of Th1 response in cf. Gluathione levels and gamma interferon levels are 100 dependant on one another for their function. As one decreases so will the other. I am going to include a link on TB, AIDS gutathione and NAC that I have posted before. If you have cf and have been on steroids lately, there is a direct link between steroids and mycobacterial disease.....steroids suppress gamma interferon the NUMBER 1 DEFENCE your body has to protect against MAC, M.abscessus, m. fortuitum..and many more. Gamma interferon fights intracellular bacteria. Interestingly, a by product of pseudo actually inactivates gamma interferon...so, we have that going for us as well.<img src="i/expressions/face-icon-small-smile.gif" border="0">

Also, I can send you what I have put together for my various docs....if you would like that.

1: Mediators Inflamm. 2004 Apr;13(2):111-7. Links
Anti-inflammatory and immunomodulating effects of clarithromycin in patients with cystic fibrosis lung disease.

Pukhalsky AL,
Shmarina GV,
Kapranov NI,
Kokarovtseva SN,
Pukhalskaya D,
Kashirskaja NJ.
Research Center for Medical Genetics, Moscow, Russia. [email protected]
BACKGROUND AND AIM: Macrolide antibiotics are widely used in the treatment of suppurative lung diseases including cystic fibrosis (CF), the most common inherited fatal disease in the Caucasian population. This condition is characterized by secondary Pseudomonas infection resulting in neutrophil infiltration within the airways. The aim of the study was to investigate the evolution of inflammatory process in CF patients receiving long-term clarithromycin therapy. METHODS: Twenty-seven CF patients (mean age, 12 years) were enrolled into the study. Beside the basic therapy the patients were treated with clarithromycin at a dose of 250 mg every other day orally. All patients were routinely examined every 3 months. Blood and sputum were collected before clarithromycin treatment and then again 3, 6 and 12 months after the drug prescription. Cytokine concentrations (tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin-8, interleukin-4, interferon-gamma) in the sputum and plasma were assayed. Peripheral blood lymphocyte response to phytohemagglutinin was also evaluated. RESULTS: Clarithromycin treatment resulted in a marked reduction of the cytokine levels both in the sputum and plasma specimens. At the same time, the interferon-gamma/interleukin-4 ratio has been significantly elevated. In addition, a sustained increase of peripheral blood lymphocyte response to phytohemagglutinin was demonstrated. These changes were associated with a significant improvement of the lung function. CONCLUSIONS:<b> The beneficial effect of the prolonged treatment of CF patients with a 14-membered ring macrolide antibiotic clarithromycin seems to be associated not only with down-regulation of the inflammatory response, but also with immunological changes including the switch from Th2 to Th1 type response.</b>

1: Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2007 Apr 6;355(2):471-6. Epub 2007 Feb 7. Links
Allicin-induced suppression of Mycobacterium tuberculosis 85B mRNA in human monocytes.

Hasan N,
Siddiqui MU,
Toossi Z,
Khan S,
Iqbal J,
Islam N.
Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, J.N. Medical College, A.M.U., Aligarh 202002, U.P., India.
Despite of encountering a robust immune response, Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) successfully survives and persists in the human host. We investigated the early regulation of MTB 85B gene by allicin in MTB-infected human monocytes. During the first 24h of infection, levels of both MTB 85B intracellular mRNA and secreted protein were significantly down-regulated by allicin in a dose-dependent manner, which was mediated by inhibition of glutathione and NF-kappaB pathway. Allicin-induced MTB 85B suppression correlated with suppression of TNF-alpha released from infected monocytes. <b>The allicin-induced up-regulation of glutathione and IFN-gamma with simultaneous decrease in TNF-alpha supports the anti-inflammatory property of allicin by elicitation of protective immune response. Thus, allicin may prove to be valuable in the containment of MTB and therefore be useful as an adjunct in treatment of tuberculosis.</b>
PMID: 17303073 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Differential cytokine profile in children with cystic fibrosis.

Brazova J,
Sediva A,
Pospisilova D,
Vavrova V,
Pohunek P,
Macek M Jr,
Bartunkova J,
Lauschmann H.
Institute of Immunology, University Hospital Motol, Prague, Czech Republic. [email protected]
The previously observed occurrence of antineutrophil cytoplasmic autoantibodies (ANCA) in patients who have cystic fibrosis (CF), together with the reported decrease in IgG2, a Th1-controlled isotype, suggests a potential for Th1/Th2 imbalance in CF patients with a possible Th2 predominance. 48 CF patients and 16 controls had levels of IFNgamma, IL-4, and IL-10 measured in supernatants of whole blood cell cultures stimulated by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and phytohemaglutinine (PHA). The patients were divided into 2 groups: "low responders", having negligible secretion of cytokines (IFNgamma: 10.0-200.0 pg/ml, IL-4: 0.0-0.3 pg/ml) and "high responders", producing high levels of both IFNgamma (500.0-2000.0 pg/ml) and IL-4 (1.0-200.0 pg/ml). <b>There was a statistically significant (P < 0.01) deterioration of lung function measured by an FEV(1) decline by 11.2% over 3 years in the "low responder" group. 10 of 16 "low responders" had chronic lung infections with P. aeruginosa while such infection was less prevalent in the "high responder" group where only 13 of 32 CF patients had positive cultures. A shift towards Th2 response was observed in the "high responder" group as children chronically infected with P. aeruginosa had greater IL-4 production than non-infected CF patients within the same cohort. ANCA autoantibodies were found only in the "high responder" group. Th2 immune response predominance in a subset of CF patients is associated with chronic P. aeruginosa infection.
</b>PMID: 15885645 [PubMed -

1: J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2007 Jan;119(1):192-8. Epub 2006 Oct 23. Links
Probiotics and prebiotic galacto-oligosaccharides in the prevention of allergic diseases: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.

Kukkonen K,
Savilahti E,
Haahtela T,
Juntunen-Backman K,
Korpela R,
Poussa T,
Tuure T,
Kuitunen M.
Skin and Allergy Hospital, University of Helsinki, Finland. [email protected]
BACKGROUND: The increase in allergic diseases is attributed to a relative lack of microbial stimulation of the infantile gut immune system. Probiotics, live health-promoting microbes, might offer such stimulation. OBJECTIVE: We studied the effect of a mixture of 4 probiotic bacterial strains along with prebiotic galacto-oligosaccharides in preventing allergic diseases. METHODS: We randomized 1223 pregnant women carrying high-risk children to use a probiotic preparation or a placebo for 2 to 4 weeks before delivery. Their infants received the same probiotics plus galacto-oligosaccharides (n = 461) or a placebo (n = 464) for 6 months. At 2 years, we evaluated the cumulative incidence of allergic diseases (food allergy, eczema, asthma, and allergic rhinitis) and IgE sensitization (positive skin prick test response or serum antigen-specific IgE level >0.7 kU/L). Fecal bacteria were analyzed during treatment and at age 2 years. RESULTS: Probiotic treatment compared with placebo showed no effect on the cumulative incidence of allergic diseases but tended to reduce IgE-associated (atopic) diseases (odds ratio [OR], 0.71; 95% CI, 0.50-1.00; P = .052). Probiotic treatment reduced eczema (OR, 0.74; 95% CI, 0.55-0.98; P = .035) and atopic eczema (OR, 0.66; 95% CI, 0.46-0.95; P = .025). Lactobacilli and bifidobacteria more frequently (P < .001) colonized the guts of supplemented infants. CONCLUSION: Probiotic treatment showed no effect on the incidence of all allergic diseases by age 2 years but significantly prevented eczema and especially atopic eczema. The results suggest an inverse association between atopic diseases and colonization of the gut by probiotics. CLINICAL IMPLICATIONS: The prevention of atopic eczema in high-risk infants is possible by modulating the infant's gut microbiota with probiotics and prebiotics.

: APMIS. 2005 Jun;113(6):400-9. Links
Serum concentrations of GM-CSF and G-CSF correlate with the Th1/Th2 cytokine response in cystic fibrosis patients with chronic Pseudomonas aeruginosa lung infection.

Moser C,
Jensen PO,
Pressler T,
Frederiksen B,
Lanng S,
Kharazmi A,
Koch C,
Hoiby N.
Department of Clinical Microbiology, Rigshospitalet, University Hospital, Copenhagen, Denmark. [email protected]
<b>The inflammation in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients with chronic Pseudomonas aeruginosa lung infection is dominated by polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs). There seems to be a relationship between the PMN-dominated inflammation, pronounced antibody production and a Th2-dominated response</b>. Apart from mobilizing monocytes and PMNs from the bone marrow, GM-CSF, G-CSF and IL-3 select subsets of dendritic cells, which subsequently induce distinct Th responses. Therefore, the present study examines the correlation between the mobilizing cytokines in serum and the Th responses. The IFN-gamma and IL-4 production by peripheral blood mononuclear cells, and the concentrations of GM-CSF and G-CSF in serum as well as lung function, were determined in 37 CF patients with and 6 CF patients without chronic P. aeruginosa lung infection. <b>The GM-CSF/G-CSF ratio correlated both with the IFN-gamma production and good lung function. In addition, an inverse correlation between IL-3 and IFN-gamma was observed. The results indicate involvement of endogenous GM-CSF, G-CSF and IL-3 in the skewed Th response in CF, and change to a Th1-dominated response might be achieved with GM-CSF treatment.
</b>PMID: 1599615

New Lactococcus strain with immunomodulatory activity: Enhancement of Th1-type immune response
Auteur(s) / Author(s)
KIMOTO Hiromi ; MIZUMACHI Koko ; OKAMOTO Takashi ; KURISAKI Jun-Ichi ;
Résumé / Abstract
Few studies exist dealing with the probiotic activity of lactococci, which are commonly used as starter bacteria in the manufacture of many kinds of fermented dairy products. Fifteen strains of the genus Lactococcus were examined for their probiotic activities, such as immunomodulatory effects. Six strains induced the production of cytokines (IL-12, IL-6, and TNF-?) in macrophage-like cell line J774.1, and the highest induction was observed with Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis G50. The cytokine induction in the J774.1 cell line was almost entirely sustained after heat-killing of the strain. Spleen cells from BALB/c mice fed G50 culture produced more IL-12 and IFN-? and slightly less IL-4 and IL-6 than the control (i.e., without strain G50), indicating that strain G50 can enhance Th1-type immune response in vivo. The effect of the oral administration of strain G50 on antibody response in mice was also investigated. Mice were immunized with ovomucoid (OVM), a potent egg allergen, and the antibody level in the serum was then determined. The total IgE antibody level in the group treated with strain G50 was significantly lower than that of the control. The response of OVM-specific IgG1 and IgE antibodies tended to be low in the group that was administered strain G50, compared with the response of the control group. These results suggest that strain G50 has an ability to suppress the Th2 response. Thus, Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis G50 is a potential probiotic strain for the suppression of hypersensitive reactions caused by the Th2 response.

: J Agric Food Chem. 2006 Mar 8;54(5):1822-8. Links
Characterization of the volatile composition of essential oils of some lamiaceae spices and the antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of the entire oils.

Bozin B,
Mimica-Dukic N,
Simin N,
Anackov G.
Department of Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, University of Novi Sad, Serbia and Montenegro.
The essential oils of Ocimum basilicum L., Origanum vulgare L., and Thymus vulgaris L. were analyzed by means of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and assayed for their antioxidant and antimicrobial activities. The antioxidant activity was evaluated as a free radical scavenging capacity (RSC), together with effects on lipid peroxidation (LP). RSC was assessed measuring the scavenging activity of the essential oils on 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazil (DPPH(*)) and OH(*) radicals. Effects on LP were evaluated following the activities of essential oils in Fe(2+)/ascorbate and Fe(2+)/H(2)O(2) systems of induction. Essential oils exhibited very strong RSCs, reducing the DPPH radical formation (IC(50)) in the range from 0.17 (oregano) to 0.39 microg/mL (basil). The essential oil of T. vulgaris exhibited the highest OH radical scavenging activity, although none of the examined essential oils reached 50% of neutralization (IC(50)). All of the tested essential oils strongly inhibited LP, induced either by Fe(2+)/ascorbate or by Fe(2+)/H(2)O(2). The antimicrobial activity was tested against 13 bacterial strains and six fungi. <b>The most effective antibacterial activity was expressed by the essential oil of oregano, even on multiresistant strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli. A significant rate of antifungal activity of all of the examined essential oils was also exhibited.</b>

Int Arch Allergy Immunol. 2007 Feb 9;143(3):237-244 [Epub ahead of print] Links
Probiotics Have a Different Immunomodulatory Potential in vitro versus ex vivo upon Oral Administration in Children with Food Allergy.

Flinterman AE,
Knol EF,
van Ieperen-van Dijk AG,
Timmerman HM,
Knulst AC,
Bruijnzeel-Koomen CA,
Pasmans SG,
van Hoffen E.
Department of Dermatology and Allergology, UMC Utrecht, Utrecht, The Netherlands.
Background: Previous studies suggest that administration of probiotics in vitro can stimulate regulatory and Th1 immune responses. We studied both the in vitro immunological effects of probiotics and the ex vivo immunological effects after oral administration of probiotics in children with food allergy, a Th2-mediated disease. Methods: Thirteen children were enrolled. Probiotics (n = 7) or placebo (n = 6) were orally administered during 3 months. At baseline and after 1 and 3 months, peripheral blood mononuclear cells were stimulated with crude peanut extract, anti-CD3, or anti-CD40 and IL-4 in the presence (in vitro response) or absence (ex vivo response) of probiotics. The proliferation and production of IFN-gamma, IL-5, IL-13, IL-10, TNF-alpha, IL-6 and IgE were analyzed. Sensitization to peanut, cow's milk and hen's egg was determined before and after treatment. Results: The in vitro addition of probiotics to peripheral blood mononuclear cell cultures resulted in enhanced proliferation and production of IFN-gamma, IL-10 and TNF-alpha. After oral treatment, proliferation in the presence of probiotics increased, whereas in vitro IgE production decreased in the probiotics group compared to baseline. The ex vivo production of IL-10, TNF-alpha and IL-6 tended to decrease. Th1 and Th2 cytokines were not altered. Sensitization remained unchanged. Conclusion: Probiotics enhanced the production of Th1 and regulatory cytokines in vitro. Oral administration of probiotics resulted in a slightly decreased ex vivo production of IL-10, TNF-alpha and IL-6. This indicates that probiotics have a different potential to modulate the immune response in vitro versus ex vivo.

: Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol. 1995;252 Suppl 1:S59-60. Links
Cytokines in neutrophil-dominated airway inflammation in patients with cystic fibrosis.

Schuster A,
Haarmann A,
Wahn V.
Department of Pediatrics, University of Dusseldorf, Germany.
Bronchopulmonary disease in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) is a paradigm of neutrophil-dominated airway inflammation. We hypothesized that proinflammatory cytokines contribute to a localized neutrophil-dominated inflammatory state as present in CF airways. In a cross-sectional study, we analyzed 63 sputum samples from 33 CF patients for concentrations of the cytokines interleukin-1 alpha (IL-1 alpha), IL-1 beta, IL-8, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), and granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) by means of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Furthermore, the activity of neutrophil elastase (NE) in the sputum samples was determined using a specific chromogenic substrate. Compared to sputum samples from 10 healthy controls, there were significantly increased concentrations of IL-1 beta, IL-8 and TNF-alpha in the CF sputum samples. The concentration of IL-8 correlated significantly with NE activity in the CF sputum samples. In CF patients with airways chronically colonized with Pseudomonas aeruginosa, IL-8 concentrations in sputum were significantly enhanced. In glucocorticoid-treated patients, IL-1 alpha and G-CSF sputum concentrations were significantly lower when compared to levels in the other patients. These results show that there are high concentrations of proinflammatory cytokines in CF airways which may contribute to the localized neutrophil-dominated inflammatory state found clinically.

J Cyst Fibros. 2006 Aug;5(3):145-51. Epub 2006 Feb 28. Links
Increased serum concentration of G-CSF in cystic fibrosis patients with chronic Pseudomonas aeruginosa pneumonia.

Jensen PO,
Moser C,
Kharazmi A,
Presler T,
Koch C,
Hoiby N.
Department of Clinical Microbiology, University of Copenhagen, Denmark. [email protected] <[email protected]>
BACKGROUND: Chronic Pseudomonas aeruginosa lung infection is the major reason for premature death in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). Infected patients experience a progressive deterioration of the lung tissue caused by a persistent accumulation of PMNs. We investigated if the pulmonary accumulation of PMNs is reflected as a migration of PMNs through the blood in chronically infected CF patients. METHODS: Blood and sputum samples from 37 stable, chronically (CF+P) and 6 non-infected (CF-P) CF patients without exacerbations were compared using FACS, leukocyte counting, and ELISA. Within the CF+P patients, the blood parameters were compared to the lung function (FEV1 and FVC) and to the sputum. Similar measurements were performed on 15 chronically infected CF patients before and after elective antibiotic treatment. RESULTS: In the CF+P patients the concentration of G-CSF in the sera and PMNs in the blood was increased and correlated to poor lung function. However, only the concentration of G-CSF in the sera was correlated to the concentration of TNF-alpha in the sputum. After the antibiotic treatment, the lung function was improved and the concentration of PMNs in the blood and G-CSF in the sera was reduced. CONCLUSION: <b>G-CSF in the sera may contribute to the pulmonary inflammation in CF patients with chronic P. aeruginosa lung infection by regulating the number of PMNs available for migration and may be considered as an indicator of clinical status.</b>

dramamama
06-02-2007, 10:58 PM
Unfortunately they are all in my computer so here goes the long list.....

I am not really sure what all I have included here because I don't have them grouped appropriately on my mac...

I just convinced my doc to test my gamma interferon level, if it is low, we are probably going to start trying to increase it by medical intervention. The study conducted by Richard Moss on inhaled gamma interferon in cf was flawed in a sense because it did not test gsh and NO production. It also did not test cfers with mycobaterial disease. It was proven safe although there were no positive effects on fev1, bacterial load or inflammatory markers.
Gamma Interferon is used as an adjunct therapy for drug resistant TB and mycos in cf...especially in DENMARK where they are not afraid to test substances your body needs in order to fight illness.


....I wote a summary "paper" and included over 100 studies on the importance of gamma interferon in the stimulation of Th1 response in cf. Gluathione levels and gamma interferon levels are 100 dependant on one another for their function. As one decreases so will the other. I am going to include a link on TB, AIDS gutathione and NAC that I have posted before. If you have cf and have been on steroids lately, there is a direct link between steroids and mycobacterial disease.....steroids suppress gamma interferon the NUMBER 1 DEFENCE your body has to protect against MAC, M.abscessus, m. fortuitum..and many more. Gamma interferon fights intracellular bacteria. Interestingly, a by product of pseudo actually inactivates gamma interferon...so, we have that going for us as well.<img src="i/expressions/face-icon-small-smile.gif" border="0">

Also, I can send you what I have put together for my various docs....if you would like that.

1: Mediators Inflamm. 2004 Apr;13(2):111-7. Links
Anti-inflammatory and immunomodulating effects of clarithromycin in patients with cystic fibrosis lung disease.

Pukhalsky AL,
Shmarina GV,
Kapranov NI,
Kokarovtseva SN,
Pukhalskaya D,
Kashirskaja NJ.
Research Center for Medical Genetics, Moscow, Russia. [email protected]
BACKGROUND AND AIM: Macrolide antibiotics are widely used in the treatment of suppurative lung diseases including cystic fibrosis (CF), the most common inherited fatal disease in the Caucasian population. This condition is characterized by secondary Pseudomonas infection resulting in neutrophil infiltration within the airways. The aim of the study was to investigate the evolution of inflammatory process in CF patients receiving long-term clarithromycin therapy. METHODS: Twenty-seven CF patients (mean age, 12 years) were enrolled into the study. Beside the basic therapy the patients were treated with clarithromycin at a dose of 250 mg every other day orally. All patients were routinely examined every 3 months. Blood and sputum were collected before clarithromycin treatment and then again 3, 6 and 12 months after the drug prescription. Cytokine concentrations (tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin-8, interleukin-4, interferon-gamma) in the sputum and plasma were assayed. Peripheral blood lymphocyte response to phytohemagglutinin was also evaluated. RESULTS: Clarithromycin treatment resulted in a marked reduction of the cytokine levels both in the sputum and plasma specimens. At the same time, the interferon-gamma/interleukin-4 ratio has been significantly elevated. In addition, a sustained increase of peripheral blood lymphocyte response to phytohemagglutinin was demonstrated. These changes were associated with a significant improvement of the lung function. CONCLUSIONS:<b> The beneficial effect of the prolonged treatment of CF patients with a 14-membered ring macrolide antibiotic clarithromycin seems to be associated not only with down-regulation of the inflammatory response, but also with immunological changes including the switch from Th2 to Th1 type response.</b>

1: Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2007 Apr 6;355(2):471-6. Epub 2007 Feb 7. Links
Allicin-induced suppression of Mycobacterium tuberculosis 85B mRNA in human monocytes.

Hasan N,
Siddiqui MU,
Toossi Z,
Khan S,
Iqbal J,
Islam N.
Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, J.N. Medical College, A.M.U., Aligarh 202002, U.P., India.
Despite of encountering a robust immune response, Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) successfully survives and persists in the human host. We investigated the early regulation of MTB 85B gene by allicin in MTB-infected human monocytes. During the first 24h of infection, levels of both MTB 85B intracellular mRNA and secreted protein were significantly down-regulated by allicin in a dose-dependent manner, which was mediated by inhibition of glutathione and NF-kappaB pathway. Allicin-induced MTB 85B suppression correlated with suppression of TNF-alpha released from infected monocytes. <b>The allicin-induced up-regulation of glutathione and IFN-gamma with simultaneous decrease in TNF-alpha supports the anti-inflammatory property of allicin by elicitation of protective immune response. Thus, allicin may prove to be valuable in the containment of MTB and therefore be useful as an adjunct in treatment of tuberculosis.</b>
PMID: 17303073 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Differential cytokine profile in children with cystic fibrosis.

Brazova J,
Sediva A,
Pospisilova D,
Vavrova V,
Pohunek P,
Macek M Jr,
Bartunkova J,
Lauschmann H.
Institute of Immunology, University Hospital Motol, Prague, Czech Republic. [email protected]
The previously observed occurrence of antineutrophil cytoplasmic autoantibodies (ANCA) in patients who have cystic fibrosis (CF), together with the reported decrease in IgG2, a Th1-controlled isotype, suggests a potential for Th1/Th2 imbalance in CF patients with a possible Th2 predominance. 48 CF patients and 16 controls had levels of IFNgamma, IL-4, and IL-10 measured in supernatants of whole blood cell cultures stimulated by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and phytohemaglutinine (PHA). The patients were divided into 2 groups: "low responders", having negligible secretion of cytokines (IFNgamma: 10.0-200.0 pg/ml, IL-4: 0.0-0.3 pg/ml) and "high responders", producing high levels of both IFNgamma (500.0-2000.0 pg/ml) and IL-4 (1.0-200.0 pg/ml). <b>There was a statistically significant (P < 0.01) deterioration of lung function measured by an FEV(1) decline by 11.2% over 3 years in the "low responder" group. 10 of 16 "low responders" had chronic lung infections with P. aeruginosa while such infection was less prevalent in the "high responder" group where only 13 of 32 CF patients had positive cultures. A shift towards Th2 response was observed in the "high responder" group as children chronically infected with P. aeruginosa had greater IL-4 production than non-infected CF patients within the same cohort. ANCA autoantibodies were found only in the "high responder" group. Th2 immune response predominance in a subset of CF patients is associated with chronic P. aeruginosa infection.
</b>PMID: 15885645 [PubMed -

1: J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2007 Jan;119(1):192-8. Epub 2006 Oct 23. Links
Probiotics and prebiotic galacto-oligosaccharides in the prevention of allergic diseases: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.

Kukkonen K,
Savilahti E,
Haahtela T,
Juntunen-Backman K,
Korpela R,
Poussa T,
Tuure T,
Kuitunen M.
Skin and Allergy Hospital, University of Helsinki, Finland. [email protected]
BACKGROUND: The increase in allergic diseases is attributed to a relative lack of microbial stimulation of the infantile gut immune system. Probiotics, live health-promoting microbes, might offer such stimulation. OBJECTIVE: We studied the effect of a mixture of 4 probiotic bacterial strains along with prebiotic galacto-oligosaccharides in preventing allergic diseases. METHODS: We randomized 1223 pregnant women carrying high-risk children to use a probiotic preparation or a placebo for 2 to 4 weeks before delivery. Their infants received the same probiotics plus galacto-oligosaccharides (n = 461) or a placebo (n = 464) for 6 months. At 2 years, we evaluated the cumulative incidence of allergic diseases (food allergy, eczema, asthma, and allergic rhinitis) and IgE sensitization (positive skin prick test response or serum antigen-specific IgE level >0.7 kU/L). Fecal bacteria were analyzed during treatment and at age 2 years. RESULTS: Probiotic treatment compared with placebo showed no effect on the cumulative incidence of allergic diseases but tended to reduce IgE-associated (atopic) diseases (odds ratio [OR], 0.71; 95% CI, 0.50-1.00; P = .052). Probiotic treatment reduced eczema (OR, 0.74; 95% CI, 0.55-0.98; P = .035) and atopic eczema (OR, 0.66; 95% CI, 0.46-0.95; P = .025). Lactobacilli and bifidobacteria more frequently (P < .001) colonized the guts of supplemented infants. CONCLUSION: Probiotic treatment showed no effect on the incidence of all allergic diseases by age 2 years but significantly prevented eczema and especially atopic eczema. The results suggest an inverse association between atopic diseases and colonization of the gut by probiotics. CLINICAL IMPLICATIONS: The prevention of atopic eczema in high-risk infants is possible by modulating the infant's gut microbiota with probiotics and prebiotics.

: APMIS. 2005 Jun;113(6):400-9. Links
Serum concentrations of GM-CSF and G-CSF correlate with the Th1/Th2 cytokine response in cystic fibrosis patients with chronic Pseudomonas aeruginosa lung infection.

Moser C,
Jensen PO,
Pressler T,
Frederiksen B,
Lanng S,
Kharazmi A,
Koch C,
Hoiby N.
Department of Clinical Microbiology, Rigshospitalet, University Hospital, Copenhagen, Denmark. [email protected]
<b>The inflammation in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients with chronic Pseudomonas aeruginosa lung infection is dominated by polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs). There seems to be a relationship between the PMN-dominated inflammation, pronounced antibody production and a Th2-dominated response</b>. Apart from mobilizing monocytes and PMNs from the bone marrow, GM-CSF, G-CSF and IL-3 select subsets of dendritic cells, which subsequently induce distinct Th responses. Therefore, the present study examines the correlation between the mobilizing cytokines in serum and the Th responses. The IFN-gamma and IL-4 production by peripheral blood mononuclear cells, and the concentrations of GM-CSF and G-CSF in serum as well as lung function, were determined in 37 CF patients with and 6 CF patients without chronic P. aeruginosa lung infection. <b>The GM-CSF/G-CSF ratio correlated both with the IFN-gamma production and good lung function. In addition, an inverse correlation between IL-3 and IFN-gamma was observed. The results indicate involvement of endogenous GM-CSF, G-CSF and IL-3 in the skewed Th response in CF, and change to a Th1-dominated response might be achieved with GM-CSF treatment.
</b>PMID: 1599615

New Lactococcus strain with immunomodulatory activity: Enhancement of Th1-type immune response
Auteur(s) / Author(s)
KIMOTO Hiromi ; MIZUMACHI Koko ; OKAMOTO Takashi ; KURISAKI Jun-Ichi ;
Résumé / Abstract
Few studies exist dealing with the probiotic activity of lactococci, which are commonly used as starter bacteria in the manufacture of many kinds of fermented dairy products. Fifteen strains of the genus Lactococcus were examined for their probiotic activities, such as immunomodulatory effects. Six strains induced the production of cytokines (IL-12, IL-6, and TNF-?) in macrophage-like cell line J774.1, and the highest induction was observed with Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis G50. The cytokine induction in the J774.1 cell line was almost entirely sustained after heat-killing of the strain. Spleen cells from BALB/c mice fed G50 culture produced more IL-12 and IFN-? and slightly less IL-4 and IL-6 than the control (i.e., without strain G50), indicating that strain G50 can enhance Th1-type immune response in vivo. The effect of the oral administration of strain G50 on antibody response in mice was also investigated. Mice were immunized with ovomucoid (OVM), a potent egg allergen, and the antibody level in the serum was then determined. The total IgE antibody level in the group treated with strain G50 was significantly lower than that of the control. The response of OVM-specific IgG1 and IgE antibodies tended to be low in the group that was administered strain G50, compared with the response of the control group. These results suggest that strain G50 has an ability to suppress the Th2 response. Thus, Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis G50 is a potential probiotic strain for the suppression of hypersensitive reactions caused by the Th2 response.

: J Agric Food Chem. 2006 Mar 8;54(5):1822-8. Links
Characterization of the volatile composition of essential oils of some lamiaceae spices and the antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of the entire oils.

Bozin B,
Mimica-Dukic N,
Simin N,
Anackov G.
Department of Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, University of Novi Sad, Serbia and Montenegro.
The essential oils of Ocimum basilicum L., Origanum vulgare L., and Thymus vulgaris L. were analyzed by means of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and assayed for their antioxidant and antimicrobial activities. The antioxidant activity was evaluated as a free radical scavenging capacity (RSC), together with effects on lipid peroxidation (LP). RSC was assessed measuring the scavenging activity of the essential oils on 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazil (DPPH(*)) and OH(*) radicals. Effects on LP were evaluated following the activities of essential oils in Fe(2+)/ascorbate and Fe(2+)/H(2)O(2) systems of induction. Essential oils exhibited very strong RSCs, reducing the DPPH radical formation (IC(50)) in the range from 0.17 (oregano) to 0.39 microg/mL (basil). The essential oil of T. vulgaris exhibited the highest OH radical scavenging activity, although none of the examined essential oils reached 50% of neutralization (IC(50)). All of the tested essential oils strongly inhibited LP, induced either by Fe(2+)/ascorbate or by Fe(2+)/H(2)O(2). The antimicrobial activity was tested against 13 bacterial strains and six fungi. <b>The most effective antibacterial activity was expressed by the essential oil of oregano, even on multiresistant strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli. A significant rate of antifungal activity of all of the examined essential oils was also exhibited.</b>

Int Arch Allergy Immunol. 2007 Feb 9;143(3):237-244 [Epub ahead of print] Links
Probiotics Have a Different Immunomodulatory Potential in vitro versus ex vivo upon Oral Administration in Children with Food Allergy.

Flinterman AE,
Knol EF,
van Ieperen-van Dijk AG,
Timmerman HM,
Knulst AC,
Bruijnzeel-Koomen CA,
Pasmans SG,
van Hoffen E.
Department of Dermatology and Allergology, UMC Utrecht, Utrecht, The Netherlands.
Background: Previous studies suggest that administration of probiotics in vitro can stimulate regulatory and Th1 immune responses. We studied both the in vitro immunological effects of probiotics and the ex vivo immunological effects after oral administration of probiotics in children with food allergy, a Th2-mediated disease. Methods: Thirteen children were enrolled. Probiotics (n = 7) or placebo (n = 6) were orally administered during 3 months. At baseline and after 1 and 3 months, peripheral blood mononuclear cells were stimulated with crude peanut extract, anti-CD3, or anti-CD40 and IL-4 in the presence (in vitro response) or absence (ex vivo response) of probiotics. The proliferation and production of IFN-gamma, IL-5, IL-13, IL-10, TNF-alpha, IL-6 and IgE were analyzed. Sensitization to peanut, cow's milk and hen's egg was determined before and after treatment. Results: The in vitro addition of probiotics to peripheral blood mononuclear cell cultures resulted in enhanced proliferation and production of IFN-gamma, IL-10 and TNF-alpha. After oral treatment, proliferation in the presence of probiotics increased, whereas in vitro IgE production decreased in the probiotics group compared to baseline. The ex vivo production of IL-10, TNF-alpha and IL-6 tended to decrease. Th1 and Th2 cytokines were not altered. Sensitization remained unchanged. Conclusion: Probiotics enhanced the production of Th1 and regulatory cytokines in vitro. Oral administration of probiotics resulted in a slightly decreased ex vivo production of IL-10, TNF-alpha and IL-6. This indicates that probiotics have a different potential to modulate the immune response in vitro versus ex vivo.

: Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol. 1995;252 Suppl 1:S59-60. Links
Cytokines in neutrophil-dominated airway inflammation in patients with cystic fibrosis.

Schuster A,
Haarmann A,
Wahn V.
Department of Pediatrics, University of Dusseldorf, Germany.
Bronchopulmonary disease in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) is a paradigm of neutrophil-dominated airway inflammation. We hypothesized that proinflammatory cytokines contribute to a localized neutrophil-dominated inflammatory state as present in CF airways. In a cross-sectional study, we analyzed 63 sputum samples from 33 CF patients for concentrations of the cytokines interleukin-1 alpha (IL-1 alpha), IL-1 beta, IL-8, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), and granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) by means of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Furthermore, the activity of neutrophil elastase (NE) in the sputum samples was determined using a specific chromogenic substrate. Compared to sputum samples from 10 healthy controls, there were significantly increased concentrations of IL-1 beta, IL-8 and TNF-alpha in the CF sputum samples. The concentration of IL-8 correlated significantly with NE activity in the CF sputum samples. In CF patients with airways chronically colonized with Pseudomonas aeruginosa, IL-8 concentrations in sputum were significantly enhanced. In glucocorticoid-treated patients, IL-1 alpha and G-CSF sputum concentrations were significantly lower when compared to levels in the other patients. These results show that there are high concentrations of proinflammatory cytokines in CF airways which may contribute to the localized neutrophil-dominated inflammatory state found clinically.

J Cyst Fibros. 2006 Aug;5(3):145-51. Epub 2006 Feb 28. Links
Increased serum concentration of G-CSF in cystic fibrosis patients with chronic Pseudomonas aeruginosa pneumonia.

Jensen PO,
Moser C,
Kharazmi A,
Presler T,
Koch C,
Hoiby N.
Department of Clinical Microbiology, University of Copenhagen, Denmark. [email protected] <[email protected]>
BACKGROUND: Chronic Pseudomonas aeruginosa lung infection is the major reason for premature death in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). Infected patients experience a progressive deterioration of the lung tissue caused by a persistent accumulation of PMNs. We investigated if the pulmonary accumulation of PMNs is reflected as a migration of PMNs through the blood in chronically infected CF patients. METHODS: Blood and sputum samples from 37 stable, chronically (CF+P) and 6 non-infected (CF-P) CF patients without exacerbations were compared using FACS, leukocyte counting, and ELISA. Within the CF+P patients, the blood parameters were compared to the lung function (FEV1 and FVC) and to the sputum. Similar measurements were performed on 15 chronically infected CF patients before and after elective antibiotic treatment. RESULTS: In the CF+P patients the concentration of G-CSF in the sera and PMNs in the blood was increased and correlated to poor lung function. However, only the concentration of G-CSF in the sera was correlated to the concentration of TNF-alpha in the sputum. After the antibiotic treatment, the lung function was improved and the concentration of PMNs in the blood and G-CSF in the sera was reduced. CONCLUSION: <b>G-CSF in the sera may contribute to the pulmonary inflammation in CF patients with chronic P. aeruginosa lung infection by regulating the number of PMNs available for migration and may be considered as an indicator of clinical status.</b>

dramamama
06-02-2007, 10:58 PM
Unfortunately they are all in my computer so here goes the long list.....

I am not really sure what all I have included here because I don't have them grouped appropriately on my mac...

I just convinced my doc to test my gamma interferon level, if it is low, we are probably going to start trying to increase it by medical intervention. The study conducted by Richard Moss on inhaled gamma interferon in cf was flawed in a sense because it did not test gsh and NO production. It also did not test cfers with mycobaterial disease. It was proven safe although there were no positive effects on fev1, bacterial load or inflammatory markers.
Gamma Interferon is used as an adjunct therapy for drug resistant TB and mycos in cf...especially in DENMARK where they are not afraid to test substances your body needs in order to fight illness.


....I wote a summary "paper" and included over 100 studies on the importance of gamma interferon in the stimulation of Th1 response in cf. Gluathione levels and gamma interferon levels are 100 dependant on one another for their function. As one decreases so will the other. I am going to include a link on TB, AIDS gutathione and NAC that I have posted before. If you have cf and have been on steroids lately, there is a direct link between steroids and mycobacterial disease.....steroids suppress gamma interferon the NUMBER 1 DEFENCE your body has to protect against MAC, M.abscessus, m. fortuitum..and many more. Gamma interferon fights intracellular bacteria. Interestingly, a by product of pseudo actually inactivates gamma interferon...so, we have that going for us as well.<img src="i/expressions/face-icon-small-smile.gif" border="0">

Also, I can send you what I have put together for my various docs....if you would like that.

1: Mediators Inflamm. 2004 Apr;13(2):111-7. Links
Anti-inflammatory and immunomodulating effects of clarithromycin in patients with cystic fibrosis lung disease.

Pukhalsky AL,
Shmarina GV,
Kapranov NI,
Kokarovtseva SN,
Pukhalskaya D,
Kashirskaja NJ.
Research Center for Medical Genetics, Moscow, Russia. [email protected]
BACKGROUND AND AIM: Macrolide antibiotics are widely used in the treatment of suppurative lung diseases including cystic fibrosis (CF), the most common inherited fatal disease in the Caucasian population. This condition is characterized by secondary Pseudomonas infection resulting in neutrophil infiltration within the airways. The aim of the study was to investigate the evolution of inflammatory process in CF patients receiving long-term clarithromycin therapy. METHODS: Twenty-seven CF patients (mean age, 12 years) were enrolled into the study. Beside the basic therapy the patients were treated with clarithromycin at a dose of 250 mg every other day orally. All patients were routinely examined every 3 months. Blood and sputum were collected before clarithromycin treatment and then again 3, 6 and 12 months after the drug prescription. Cytokine concentrations (tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin-8, interleukin-4, interferon-gamma) in the sputum and plasma were assayed. Peripheral blood lymphocyte response to phytohemagglutinin was also evaluated. RESULTS: Clarithromycin treatment resulted in a marked reduction of the cytokine levels both in the sputum and plasma specimens. At the same time, the interferon-gamma/interleukin-4 ratio has been significantly elevated. In addition, a sustained increase of peripheral blood lymphocyte response to phytohemagglutinin was demonstrated. These changes were associated with a significant improvement of the lung function. CONCLUSIONS:<b> The beneficial effect of the prolonged treatment of CF patients with a 14-membered ring macrolide antibiotic clarithromycin seems to be associated not only with down-regulation of the inflammatory response, but also with immunological changes including the switch from Th2 to Th1 type response.</b>

1: Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2007 Apr 6;355(2):471-6. Epub 2007 Feb 7. Links
Allicin-induced suppression of Mycobacterium tuberculosis 85B mRNA in human monocytes.

Hasan N,
Siddiqui MU,
Toossi Z,
Khan S,
Iqbal J,
Islam N.
Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, J.N. Medical College, A.M.U., Aligarh 202002, U.P., India.
Despite of encountering a robust immune response, Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) successfully survives and persists in the human host. We investigated the early regulation of MTB 85B gene by allicin in MTB-infected human monocytes. During the first 24h of infection, levels of both MTB 85B intracellular mRNA and secreted protein were significantly down-regulated by allicin in a dose-dependent manner, which was mediated by inhibition of glutathione and NF-kappaB pathway. Allicin-induced MTB 85B suppression correlated with suppression of TNF-alpha released from infected monocytes. <b>The allicin-induced up-regulation of glutathione and IFN-gamma with simultaneous decrease in TNF-alpha supports the anti-inflammatory property of allicin by elicitation of protective immune response. Thus, allicin may prove to be valuable in the containment of MTB and therefore be useful as an adjunct in treatment of tuberculosis.</b>
PMID: 17303073 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Differential cytokine profile in children with cystic fibrosis.

Brazova J,
Sediva A,
Pospisilova D,
Vavrova V,
Pohunek P,
Macek M Jr,
Bartunkova J,
Lauschmann H.
Institute of Immunology, University Hospital Motol, Prague, Czech Republic. [email protected]
The previously observed occurrence of antineutrophil cytoplasmic autoantibodies (ANCA) in patients who have cystic fibrosis (CF), together with the reported decrease in IgG2, a Th1-controlled isotype, suggests a potential for Th1/Th2 imbalance in CF patients with a possible Th2 predominance. 48 CF patients and 16 controls had levels of IFNgamma, IL-4, and IL-10 measured in supernatants of whole blood cell cultures stimulated by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and phytohemaglutinine (PHA). The patients were divided into 2 groups: "low responders", having negligible secretion of cytokines (IFNgamma: 10.0-200.0 pg/ml, IL-4: 0.0-0.3 pg/ml) and "high responders", producing high levels of both IFNgamma (500.0-2000.0 pg/ml) and IL-4 (1.0-200.0 pg/ml). <b>There was a statistically significant (P < 0.01) deterioration of lung function measured by an FEV(1) decline by 11.2% over 3 years in the "low responder" group. 10 of 16 "low responders" had chronic lung infections with P. aeruginosa while such infection was less prevalent in the "high responder" group where only 13 of 32 CF patients had positive cultures. A shift towards Th2 response was observed in the "high responder" group as children chronically infected with P. aeruginosa had greater IL-4 production than non-infected CF patients within the same cohort. ANCA autoantibodies were found only in the "high responder" group. Th2 immune response predominance in a subset of CF patients is associated with chronic P. aeruginosa infection.
</b>PMID: 15885645 [PubMed -

1: J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2007 Jan;119(1):192-8. Epub 2006 Oct 23. Links
Probiotics and prebiotic galacto-oligosaccharides in the prevention of allergic diseases: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.

Kukkonen K,
Savilahti E,
Haahtela T,
Juntunen-Backman K,
Korpela R,
Poussa T,
Tuure T,
Kuitunen M.
Skin and Allergy Hospital, University of Helsinki, Finland. [email protected]
BACKGROUND: The increase in allergic diseases is attributed to a relative lack of microbial stimulation of the infantile gut immune system. Probiotics, live health-promoting microbes, might offer such stimulation. OBJECTIVE: We studied the effect of a mixture of 4 probiotic bacterial strains along with prebiotic galacto-oligosaccharides in preventing allergic diseases. METHODS: We randomized 1223 pregnant women carrying high-risk children to use a probiotic preparation or a placebo for 2 to 4 weeks before delivery. Their infants received the same probiotics plus galacto-oligosaccharides (n = 461) or a placebo (n = 464) for 6 months. At 2 years, we evaluated the cumulative incidence of allergic diseases (food allergy, eczema, asthma, and allergic rhinitis) and IgE sensitization (positive skin prick test response or serum antigen-specific IgE level >0.7 kU/L). Fecal bacteria were analyzed during treatment and at age 2 years. RESULTS: Probiotic treatment compared with placebo showed no effect on the cumulative incidence of allergic diseases but tended to reduce IgE-associated (atopic) diseases (odds ratio [OR], 0.71; 95% CI, 0.50-1.00; P = .052). Probiotic treatment reduced eczema (OR, 0.74; 95% CI, 0.55-0.98; P = .035) and atopic eczema (OR, 0.66; 95% CI, 0.46-0.95; P = .025). Lactobacilli and bifidobacteria more frequently (P < .001) colonized the guts of supplemented infants. CONCLUSION: Probiotic treatment showed no effect on the incidence of all allergic diseases by age 2 years but significantly prevented eczema and especially atopic eczema. The results suggest an inverse association between atopic diseases and colonization of the gut by probiotics. CLINICAL IMPLICATIONS: The prevention of atopic eczema in high-risk infants is possible by modulating the infant's gut microbiota with probiotics and prebiotics.

: APMIS. 2005 Jun;113(6):400-9. Links
Serum concentrations of GM-CSF and G-CSF correlate with the Th1/Th2 cytokine response in cystic fibrosis patients with chronic Pseudomonas aeruginosa lung infection.

Moser C,
Jensen PO,
Pressler T,
Frederiksen B,
Lanng S,
Kharazmi A,
Koch C,
Hoiby N.
Department of Clinical Microbiology, Rigshospitalet, University Hospital, Copenhagen, Denmark. [email protected]
<b>The inflammation in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients with chronic Pseudomonas aeruginosa lung infection is dominated by polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs). There seems to be a relationship between the PMN-dominated inflammation, pronounced antibody production and a Th2-dominated response</b>. Apart from mobilizing monocytes and PMNs from the bone marrow, GM-CSF, G-CSF and IL-3 select subsets of dendritic cells, which subsequently induce distinct Th responses. Therefore, the present study examines the correlation between the mobilizing cytokines in serum and the Th responses. The IFN-gamma and IL-4 production by peripheral blood mononuclear cells, and the concentrations of GM-CSF and G-CSF in serum as well as lung function, were determined in 37 CF patients with and 6 CF patients without chronic P. aeruginosa lung infection. <b>The GM-CSF/G-CSF ratio correlated both with the IFN-gamma production and good lung function. In addition, an inverse correlation between IL-3 and IFN-gamma was observed. The results indicate involvement of endogenous GM-CSF, G-CSF and IL-3 in the skewed Th response in CF, and change to a Th1-dominated response might be achieved with GM-CSF treatment.
</b>PMID: 1599615

New Lactococcus strain with immunomodulatory activity: Enhancement of Th1-type immune response
Auteur(s) / Author(s)
KIMOTO Hiromi ; MIZUMACHI Koko ; OKAMOTO Takashi ; KURISAKI Jun-Ichi ;
Résumé / Abstract
Few studies exist dealing with the probiotic activity of lactococci, which are commonly used as starter bacteria in the manufacture of many kinds of fermented dairy products. Fifteen strains of the genus Lactococcus were examined for their probiotic activities, such as immunomodulatory effects. Six strains induced the production of cytokines (IL-12, IL-6, and TNF-?) in macrophage-like cell line J774.1, and the highest induction was observed with Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis G50. The cytokine induction in the J774.1 cell line was almost entirely sustained after heat-killing of the strain. Spleen cells from BALB/c mice fed G50 culture produced more IL-12 and IFN-? and slightly less IL-4 and IL-6 than the control (i.e., without strain G50), indicating that strain G50 can enhance Th1-type immune response in vivo. The effect of the oral administration of strain G50 on antibody response in mice was also investigated. Mice were immunized with ovomucoid (OVM), a potent egg allergen, and the antibody level in the serum was then determined. The total IgE antibody level in the group treated with strain G50 was significantly lower than that of the control. The response of OVM-specific IgG1 and IgE antibodies tended to be low in the group that was administered strain G50, compared with the response of the control group. These results suggest that strain G50 has an ability to suppress the Th2 response. Thus, Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis G50 is a potential probiotic strain for the suppression of hypersensitive reactions caused by the Th2 response.

: J Agric Food Chem. 2006 Mar 8;54(5):1822-8. Links
Characterization of the volatile composition of essential oils of some lamiaceae spices and the antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of the entire oils.

Bozin B,
Mimica-Dukic N,
Simin N,
Anackov G.
Department of Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, University of Novi Sad, Serbia and Montenegro.
The essential oils of Ocimum basilicum L., Origanum vulgare L., and Thymus vulgaris L. were analyzed by means of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and assayed for their antioxidant and antimicrobial activities. The antioxidant activity was evaluated as a free radical scavenging capacity (RSC), together with effects on lipid peroxidation (LP). RSC was assessed measuring the scavenging activity of the essential oils on 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazil (DPPH(*)) and OH(*) radicals. Effects on LP were evaluated following the activities of essential oils in Fe(2+)/ascorbate and Fe(2+)/H(2)O(2) systems of induction. Essential oils exhibited very strong RSCs, reducing the DPPH radical formation (IC(50)) in the range from 0.17 (oregano) to 0.39 microg/mL (basil). The essential oil of T. vulgaris exhibited the highest OH radical scavenging activity, although none of the examined essential oils reached 50% of neutralization (IC(50)). All of the tested essential oils strongly inhibited LP, induced either by Fe(2+)/ascorbate or by Fe(2+)/H(2)O(2). The antimicrobial activity was tested against 13 bacterial strains and six fungi. <b>The most effective antibacterial activity was expressed by the essential oil of oregano, even on multiresistant strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli. A significant rate of antifungal activity of all of the examined essential oils was also exhibited.</b>

Int Arch Allergy Immunol. 2007 Feb 9;143(3):237-244 [Epub ahead of print] Links
Probiotics Have a Different Immunomodulatory Potential in vitro versus ex vivo upon Oral Administration in Children with Food Allergy.

Flinterman AE,
Knol EF,
van Ieperen-van Dijk AG,
Timmerman HM,
Knulst AC,
Bruijnzeel-Koomen CA,
Pasmans SG,
van Hoffen E.
Department of Dermatology and Allergology, UMC Utrecht, Utrecht, The Netherlands.
Background: Previous studies suggest that administration of probiotics in vitro can stimulate regulatory and Th1 immune responses. We studied both the in vitro immunological effects of probiotics and the ex vivo immunological effects after oral administration of probiotics in children with food allergy, a Th2-mediated disease. Methods: Thirteen children were enrolled. Probiotics (n = 7) or placebo (n = 6) were orally administered during 3 months. At baseline and after 1 and 3 months, peripheral blood mononuclear cells were stimulated with crude peanut extract, anti-CD3, or anti-CD40 and IL-4 in the presence (in vitro response) or absence (ex vivo response) of probiotics. The proliferation and production of IFN-gamma, IL-5, IL-13, IL-10, TNF-alpha, IL-6 and IgE were analyzed. Sensitization to peanut, cow's milk and hen's egg was determined before and after treatment. Results: The in vitro addition of probiotics to peripheral blood mononuclear cell cultures resulted in enhanced proliferation and production of IFN-gamma, IL-10 and TNF-alpha. After oral treatment, proliferation in the presence of probiotics increased, whereas in vitro IgE production decreased in the probiotics group compared to baseline. The ex vivo production of IL-10, TNF-alpha and IL-6 tended to decrease. Th1 and Th2 cytokines were not altered. Sensitization remained unchanged. Conclusion: Probiotics enhanced the production of Th1 and regulatory cytokines in vitro. Oral administration of probiotics resulted in a slightly decreased ex vivo production of IL-10, TNF-alpha and IL-6. This indicates that probiotics have a different potential to modulate the immune response in vitro versus ex vivo.

: Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol. 1995;252 Suppl 1:S59-60. Links
Cytokines in neutrophil-dominated airway inflammation in patients with cystic fibrosis.

Schuster A,
Haarmann A,
Wahn V.
Department of Pediatrics, University of Dusseldorf, Germany.
Bronchopulmonary disease in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) is a paradigm of neutrophil-dominated airway inflammation. We hypothesized that proinflammatory cytokines contribute to a localized neutrophil-dominated inflammatory state as present in CF airways. In a cross-sectional study, we analyzed 63 sputum samples from 33 CF patients for concentrations of the cytokines interleukin-1 alpha (IL-1 alpha), IL-1 beta, IL-8, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), and granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) by means of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Furthermore, the activity of neutrophil elastase (NE) in the sputum samples was determined using a specific chromogenic substrate. Compared to sputum samples from 10 healthy controls, there were significantly increased concentrations of IL-1 beta, IL-8 and TNF-alpha in the CF sputum samples. The concentration of IL-8 correlated significantly with NE activity in the CF sputum samples. In CF patients with airways chronically colonized with Pseudomonas aeruginosa, IL-8 concentrations in sputum were significantly enhanced. In glucocorticoid-treated patients, IL-1 alpha and G-CSF sputum concentrations were significantly lower when compared to levels in the other patients. These results show that there are high concentrations of proinflammatory cytokines in CF airways which may contribute to the localized neutrophil-dominated inflammatory state found clinically.

J Cyst Fibros. 2006 Aug;5(3):145-51. Epub 2006 Feb 28. Links
Increased serum concentration of G-CSF in cystic fibrosis patients with chronic Pseudomonas aeruginosa pneumonia.

Jensen PO,
Moser C,
Kharazmi A,
Presler T,
Koch C,
Hoiby N.
Department of Clinical Microbiology, University of Copenhagen, Denmark. [email protected] <[email protected]>
BACKGROUND: Chronic Pseudomonas aeruginosa lung infection is the major reason for premature death in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). Infected patients experience a progressive deterioration of the lung tissue caused by a persistent accumulation of PMNs. We investigated if the pulmonary accumulation of PMNs is reflected as a migration of PMNs through the blood in chronically infected CF patients. METHODS: Blood and sputum samples from 37 stable, chronically (CF+P) and 6 non-infected (CF-P) CF patients without exacerbations were compared using FACS, leukocyte counting, and ELISA. Within the CF+P patients, the blood parameters were compared to the lung function (FEV1 and FVC) and to the sputum. Similar measurements were performed on 15 chronically infected CF patients before and after elective antibiotic treatment. RESULTS: In the CF+P patients the concentration of G-CSF in the sera and PMNs in the blood was increased and correlated to poor lung function. However, only the concentration of G-CSF in the sera was correlated to the concentration of TNF-alpha in the sputum. After the antibiotic treatment, the lung function was improved and the concentration of PMNs in the blood and G-CSF in the sera was reduced. CONCLUSION: <b>G-CSF in the sera may contribute to the pulmonary inflammation in CF patients with chronic P. aeruginosa lung infection by regulating the number of PMNs available for migration and may be considered as an indicator of clinical status.</b>

dramamama
06-02-2007, 10:58 PM
Unfortunately they are all in my computer so here goes the long list.....

I am not really sure what all I have included here because I don't have them grouped appropriately on my mac...

I just convinced my doc to test my gamma interferon level, if it is low, we are probably going to start trying to increase it by medical intervention. The study conducted by Richard Moss on inhaled gamma interferon in cf was flawed in a sense because it did not test gsh and NO production. It also did not test cfers with mycobaterial disease. It was proven safe although there were no positive effects on fev1, bacterial load or inflammatory markers.
Gamma Interferon is used as an adjunct therapy for drug resistant TB and mycos in cf...especially in DENMARK where they are not afraid to test substances your body needs in order to fight illness.


....I wote a summary "paper" and included over 100 studies on the importance of gamma interferon in the stimulation of Th1 response in cf. Gluathione levels and gamma interferon levels are 100 dependant on one another for their function. As one decreases so will the other. I am going to include a link on TB, AIDS gutathione and NAC that I have posted before. If you have cf and have been on steroids lately, there is a direct link between steroids and mycobacterial disease.....steroids suppress gamma interferon the NUMBER 1 DEFENCE your body has to protect against MAC, M.abscessus, m. fortuitum..and many more. Gamma interferon fights intracellular bacteria. Interestingly, a by product of pseudo actually inactivates gamma interferon...so, we have that going for us as well.<img src="i/expressions/face-icon-small-smile.gif" border="0">

Also, I can send you what I have put together for my various docs....if you would like that.

1: Mediators Inflamm. 2004 Apr;13(2):111-7. Links
Anti-inflammatory and immunomodulating effects of clarithromycin in patients with cystic fibrosis lung disease.

Pukhalsky AL,
Shmarina GV,
Kapranov NI,
Kokarovtseva SN,
Pukhalskaya D,
Kashirskaja NJ.
Research Center for Medical Genetics, Moscow, Russia. [email protected]
BACKGROUND AND AIM: Macrolide antibiotics are widely used in the treatment of suppurative lung diseases including cystic fibrosis (CF), the most common inherited fatal disease in the Caucasian population. This condition is characterized by secondary Pseudomonas infection resulting in neutrophil infiltration within the airways. The aim of the study was to investigate the evolution of inflammatory process in CF patients receiving long-term clarithromycin therapy. METHODS: Twenty-seven CF patients (mean age, 12 years) were enrolled into the study. Beside the basic therapy the patients were treated with clarithromycin at a dose of 250 mg every other day orally. All patients were routinely examined every 3 months. Blood and sputum were collected before clarithromycin treatment and then again 3, 6 and 12 months after the drug prescription. Cytokine concentrations (tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin-8, interleukin-4, interferon-gamma) in the sputum and plasma were assayed. Peripheral blood lymphocyte response to phytohemagglutinin was also evaluated. RESULTS: Clarithromycin treatment resulted in a marked reduction of the cytokine levels both in the sputum and plasma specimens. At the same time, the interferon-gamma/interleukin-4 ratio has been significantly elevated. In addition, a sustained increase of peripheral blood lymphocyte response to phytohemagglutinin was demonstrated. These changes were associated with a significant improvement of the lung function. CONCLUSIONS:<b> The beneficial effect of the prolonged treatment of CF patients with a 14-membered ring macrolide antibiotic clarithromycin seems to be associated not only with down-regulation of the inflammatory response, but also with immunological changes including the switch from Th2 to Th1 type response.</b>

1: Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2007 Apr 6;355(2):471-6. Epub 2007 Feb 7. Links
Allicin-induced suppression of Mycobacterium tuberculosis 85B mRNA in human monocytes.

Hasan N,
Siddiqui MU,
Toossi Z,
Khan S,
Iqbal J,
Islam N.
Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, J.N. Medical College, A.M.U., Aligarh 202002, U.P., India.
Despite of encountering a robust immune response, Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) successfully survives and persists in the human host. We investigated the early regulation of MTB 85B gene by allicin in MTB-infected human monocytes. During the first 24h of infection, levels of both MTB 85B intracellular mRNA and secreted protein were significantly down-regulated by allicin in a dose-dependent manner, which was mediated by inhibition of glutathione and NF-kappaB pathway. Allicin-induced MTB 85B suppression correlated with suppression of TNF-alpha released from infected monocytes. <b>The allicin-induced up-regulation of glutathione and IFN-gamma with simultaneous decrease in TNF-alpha supports the anti-inflammatory property of allicin by elicitation of protective immune response. Thus, allicin may prove to be valuable in the containment of MTB and therefore be useful as an adjunct in treatment of tuberculosis.</b>
PMID: 17303073 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Differential cytokine profile in children with cystic fibrosis.

Brazova J,
Sediva A,
Pospisilova D,
Vavrova V,
Pohunek P,
Macek M Jr,
Bartunkova J,
Lauschmann H.
Institute of Immunology, University Hospital Motol, Prague, Czech Republic. [email protected]
The previously observed occurrence of antineutrophil cytoplasmic autoantibodies (ANCA) in patients who have cystic fibrosis (CF), together with the reported decrease in IgG2, a Th1-controlled isotype, suggests a potential for Th1/Th2 imbalance in CF patients with a possible Th2 predominance. 48 CF patients and 16 controls had levels of IFNgamma, IL-4, and IL-10 measured in supernatants of whole blood cell cultures stimulated by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and phytohemaglutinine (PHA). The patients were divided into 2 groups: "low responders", having negligible secretion of cytokines (IFNgamma: 10.0-200.0 pg/ml, IL-4: 0.0-0.3 pg/ml) and "high responders", producing high levels of both IFNgamma (500.0-2000.0 pg/ml) and IL-4 (1.0-200.0 pg/ml). <b>There was a statistically significant (P < 0.01) deterioration of lung function measured by an FEV(1) decline by 11.2% over 3 years in the "low responder" group. 10 of 16 "low responders" had chronic lung infections with P. aeruginosa while such infection was less prevalent in the "high responder" group where only 13 of 32 CF patients had positive cultures. A shift towards Th2 response was observed in the "high responder" group as children chronically infected with P. aeruginosa had greater IL-4 production than non-infected CF patients within the same cohort. ANCA autoantibodies were found only in the "high responder" group. Th2 immune response predominance in a subset of CF patients is associated with chronic P. aeruginosa infection.
</b>PMID: 15885645 [PubMed -

1: J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2007 Jan;119(1):192-8. Epub 2006 Oct 23. Links
Probiotics and prebiotic galacto-oligosaccharides in the prevention of allergic diseases: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.

Kukkonen K,
Savilahti E,
Haahtela T,
Juntunen-Backman K,
Korpela R,
Poussa T,
Tuure T,
Kuitunen M.
Skin and Allergy Hospital, University of Helsinki, Finland. [email protected]
BACKGROUND: The increase in allergic diseases is attributed to a relative lack of microbial stimulation of the infantile gut immune system. Probiotics, live health-promoting microbes, might offer such stimulation. OBJECTIVE: We studied the effect of a mixture of 4 probiotic bacterial strains along with prebiotic galacto-oligosaccharides in preventing allergic diseases. METHODS: We randomized 1223 pregnant women carrying high-risk children to use a probiotic preparation or a placebo for 2 to 4 weeks before delivery. Their infants received the same probiotics plus galacto-oligosaccharides (n = 461) or a placebo (n = 464) for 6 months. At 2 years, we evaluated the cumulative incidence of allergic diseases (food allergy, eczema, asthma, and allergic rhinitis) and IgE sensitization (positive skin prick test response or serum antigen-specific IgE level >0.7 kU/L). Fecal bacteria were analyzed during treatment and at age 2 years. RESULTS: Probiotic treatment compared with placebo showed no effect on the cumulative incidence of allergic diseases but tended to reduce IgE-associated (atopic) diseases (odds ratio [OR], 0.71; 95% CI, 0.50-1.00; P = .052). Probiotic treatment reduced eczema (OR, 0.74; 95% CI, 0.55-0.98; P = .035) and atopic eczema (OR, 0.66; 95% CI, 0.46-0.95; P = .025). Lactobacilli and bifidobacteria more frequently (P < .001) colonized the guts of supplemented infants. CONCLUSION: Probiotic treatment showed no effect on the incidence of all allergic diseases by age 2 years but significantly prevented eczema and especially atopic eczema. The results suggest an inverse association between atopic diseases and colonization of the gut by probiotics. CLINICAL IMPLICATIONS: The prevention of atopic eczema in high-risk infants is possible by modulating the infant's gut microbiota with probiotics and prebiotics.

: APMIS. 2005 Jun;113(6):400-9. Links
Serum concentrations of GM-CSF and G-CSF correlate with the Th1/Th2 cytokine response in cystic fibrosis patients with chronic Pseudomonas aeruginosa lung infection.

Moser C,
Jensen PO,
Pressler T,
Frederiksen B,
Lanng S,
Kharazmi A,
Koch C,
Hoiby N.
Department of Clinical Microbiology, Rigshospitalet, University Hospital, Copenhagen, Denmark. [email protected]
<b>The inflammation in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients with chronic Pseudomonas aeruginosa lung infection is dominated by polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs). There seems to be a relationship between the PMN-dominated inflammation, pronounced antibody production and a Th2-dominated response</b>. Apart from mobilizing monocytes and PMNs from the bone marrow, GM-CSF, G-CSF and IL-3 select subsets of dendritic cells, which subsequently induce distinct Th responses. Therefore, the present study examines the correlation between the mobilizing cytokines in serum and the Th responses. The IFN-gamma and IL-4 production by peripheral blood mononuclear cells, and the concentrations of GM-CSF and G-CSF in serum as well as lung function, were determined in 37 CF patients with and 6 CF patients without chronic P. aeruginosa lung infection. <b>The GM-CSF/G-CSF ratio correlated both with the IFN-gamma production and good lung function. In addition, an inverse correlation between IL-3 and IFN-gamma was observed. The results indicate involvement of endogenous GM-CSF, G-CSF and IL-3 in the skewed Th response in CF, and change to a Th1-dominated response might be achieved with GM-CSF treatment.
</b>PMID: 1599615

New Lactococcus strain with immunomodulatory activity: Enhancement of Th1-type immune response
Auteur(s) / Author(s)
KIMOTO Hiromi ; MIZUMACHI Koko ; OKAMOTO Takashi ; KURISAKI Jun-Ichi ;
Résumé / Abstract
Few studies exist dealing with the probiotic activity of lactococci, which are commonly used as starter bacteria in the manufacture of many kinds of fermented dairy products. Fifteen strains of the genus Lactococcus were examined for their probiotic activities, such as immunomodulatory effects. Six strains induced the production of cytokines (IL-12, IL-6, and TNF-?) in macrophage-like cell line J774.1, and the highest induction was observed with Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis G50. The cytokine induction in the J774.1 cell line was almost entirely sustained after heat-killing of the strain. Spleen cells from BALB/c mice fed G50 culture produced more IL-12 and IFN-? and slightly less IL-4 and IL-6 than the control (i.e., without strain G50), indicating that strain G50 can enhance Th1-type immune response in vivo. The effect of the oral administration of strain G50 on antibody response in mice was also investigated. Mice were immunized with ovomucoid (OVM), a potent egg allergen, and the antibody level in the serum was then determined. The total IgE antibody level in the group treated with strain G50 was significantly lower than that of the control. The response of OVM-specific IgG1 and IgE antibodies tended to be low in the group that was administered strain G50, compared with the response of the control group. These results suggest that strain G50 has an ability to suppress the Th2 response. Thus, Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis G50 is a potential probiotic strain for the suppression of hypersensitive reactions caused by the Th2 response.

: J Agric Food Chem. 2006 Mar 8;54(5):1822-8. Links
Characterization of the volatile composition of essential oils of some lamiaceae spices and the antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of the entire oils.

Bozin B,
Mimica-Dukic N,
Simin N,
Anackov G.
Department of Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, University of Novi Sad, Serbia and Montenegro.
The essential oils of Ocimum basilicum L., Origanum vulgare L., and Thymus vulgaris L. were analyzed by means of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and assayed for their antioxidant and antimicrobial activities. The antioxidant activity was evaluated as a free radical scavenging capacity (RSC), together with effects on lipid peroxidation (LP). RSC was assessed measuring the scavenging activity of the essential oils on 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazil (DPPH(*)) and OH(*) radicals. Effects on LP were evaluated following the activities of essential oils in Fe(2+)/ascorbate and Fe(2+)/H(2)O(2) systems of induction. Essential oils exhibited very strong RSCs, reducing the DPPH radical formation (IC(50)) in the range from 0.17 (oregano) to 0.39 microg/mL (basil). The essential oil of T. vulgaris exhibited the highest OH radical scavenging activity, although none of the examined essential oils reached 50% of neutralization (IC(50)). All of the tested essential oils strongly inhibited LP, induced either by Fe(2+)/ascorbate or by Fe(2+)/H(2)O(2). The antimicrobial activity was tested against 13 bacterial strains and six fungi. <b>The most effective antibacterial activity was expressed by the essential oil of oregano, even on multiresistant strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli. A significant rate of antifungal activity of all of the examined essential oils was also exhibited.</b>

Int Arch Allergy Immunol. 2007 Feb 9;143(3):237-244 [Epub ahead of print] Links
Probiotics Have a Different Immunomodulatory Potential in vitro versus ex vivo upon Oral Administration in Children with Food Allergy.

Flinterman AE,
Knol EF,
van Ieperen-van Dijk AG,
Timmerman HM,
Knulst AC,
Bruijnzeel-Koomen CA,
Pasmans SG,
van Hoffen E.
Department of Dermatology and Allergology, UMC Utrecht, Utrecht, The Netherlands.
Background: Previous studies suggest that administration of probiotics in vitro can stimulate regulatory and Th1 immune responses. We studied both the in vitro immunological effects of probiotics and the ex vivo immunological effects after oral administration of probiotics in children with food allergy, a Th2-mediated disease. Methods: Thirteen children were enrolled. Probiotics (n = 7) or placebo (n = 6) were orally administered during 3 months. At baseline and after 1 and 3 months, peripheral blood mononuclear cells were stimulated with crude peanut extract, anti-CD3, or anti-CD40 and IL-4 in the presence (in vitro response) or absence (ex vivo response) of probiotics. The proliferation and production of IFN-gamma, IL-5, IL-13, IL-10, TNF-alpha, IL-6 and IgE were analyzed. Sensitization to peanut, cow's milk and hen's egg was determined before and after treatment. Results: The in vitro addition of probiotics to peripheral blood mononuclear cell cultures resulted in enhanced proliferation and production of IFN-gamma, IL-10 and TNF-alpha. After oral treatment, proliferation in the presence of probiotics increased, whereas in vitro IgE production decreased in the probiotics group compared to baseline. The ex vivo production of IL-10, TNF-alpha and IL-6 tended to decrease. Th1 and Th2 cytokines were not altered. Sensitization remained unchanged. Conclusion: Probiotics enhanced the production of Th1 and regulatory cytokines in vitro. Oral administration of probiotics resulted in a slightly decreased ex vivo production of IL-10, TNF-alpha and IL-6. This indicates that probiotics have a different potential to modulate the immune response in vitro versus ex vivo.

: Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol. 1995;252 Suppl 1:S59-60. Links
Cytokines in neutrophil-dominated airway inflammation in patients with cystic fibrosis.

Schuster A,
Haarmann A,
Wahn V.
Department of Pediatrics, University of Dusseldorf, Germany.
Bronchopulmonary disease in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) is a paradigm of neutrophil-dominated airway inflammation. We hypothesized that proinflammatory cytokines contribute to a localized neutrophil-dominated inflammatory state as present in CF airways. In a cross-sectional study, we analyzed 63 sputum samples from 33 CF patients for concentrations of the cytokines interleukin-1 alpha (IL-1 alpha), IL-1 beta, IL-8, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), and granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) by means of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Furthermore, the activity of neutrophil elastase (NE) in the sputum samples was determined using a specific chromogenic substrate. Compared to sputum samples from 10 healthy controls, there were significantly increased concentrations of IL-1 beta, IL-8 and TNF-alpha in the CF sputum samples. The concentration of IL-8 correlated significantly with NE activity in the CF sputum samples. In CF patients with airways chronically colonized with Pseudomonas aeruginosa, IL-8 concentrations in sputum were significantly enhanced. In glucocorticoid-treated patients, IL-1 alpha and G-CSF sputum concentrations were significantly lower when compared to levels in the other patients. These results show that there are high concentrations of proinflammatory cytokines in CF airways which may contribute to the localized neutrophil-dominated inflammatory state found clinically.

J Cyst Fibros. 2006 Aug;5(3):145-51. Epub 2006 Feb 28. Links
Increased serum concentration of G-CSF in cystic fibrosis patients with chronic Pseudomonas aeruginosa pneumonia.

Jensen PO,
Moser C,
Kharazmi A,
Presler T,
Koch C,
Hoiby N.
Department of Clinical Microbiology, University of Copenhagen, Denmark. [email protected] <[email protected]>
BACKGROUND: Chronic Pseudomonas aeruginosa lung infection is the major reason for premature death in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). Infected patients experience a progressive deterioration of the lung tissue caused by a persistent accumulation of PMNs. We investigated if the pulmonary accumulation of PMNs is reflected as a migration of PMNs through the blood in chronically infected CF patients. METHODS: Blood and sputum samples from 37 stable, chronically (CF+P) and 6 non-infected (CF-P) CF patients without exacerbations were compared using FACS, leukocyte counting, and ELISA. Within the CF+P patients, the blood parameters were compared to the lung function (FEV1 and FVC) and to the sputum. Similar measurements were performed on 15 chronically infected CF patients before and after elective antibiotic treatment. RESULTS: In the CF+P patients the concentration of G-CSF in the sera and PMNs in the blood was increased and correlated to poor lung function. However, only the concentration of G-CSF in the sera was correlated to the concentration of TNF-alpha in the sputum. After the antibiotic treatment, the lung function was improved and the concentration of PMNs in the blood and G-CSF in the sera was reduced. CONCLUSION: <b>G-CSF in the sera may contribute to the pulmonary inflammation in CF patients with chronic P. aeruginosa lung infection by regulating the number of PMNs available for migration and may be considered as an indicator of clinical status.</b>

dramamama
06-02-2007, 10:58 PM
Unfortunately they are all in my computer so here goes the long list.....

I am not really sure what all I have included here because I don't have them grouped appropriately on my mac...

I just convinced my doc to test my gamma interferon level, if it is low, we are probably going to start trying to increase it by medical intervention. The study conducted by Richard Moss on inhaled gamma interferon in cf was flawed in a sense because it did not test gsh and NO production. It also did not test cfers with mycobaterial disease. It was proven safe although there were no positive effects on fev1, bacterial load or inflammatory markers.
Gamma Interferon is used as an adjunct therapy for drug resistant TB and mycos in cf...especially in DENMARK where they are not afraid to test substances your body needs in order to fight illness.


....I wote a summary "paper" and included over 100 studies on the importance of gamma interferon in the stimulation of Th1 response in cf. Gluathione levels and gamma interferon levels are 100 dependant on one another for their function. As one decreases so will the other. I am going to include a link on TB, AIDS gutathione and NAC that I have posted before. If you have cf and have been on steroids lately, there is a direct link between steroids and mycobacterial disease.....steroids suppress gamma interferon the NUMBER 1 DEFENCE your body has to protect against MAC, M.abscessus, m. fortuitum..and many more. Gamma interferon fights intracellular bacteria. Interestingly, a by product of pseudo actually inactivates gamma interferon...so, we have that going for us as well.<img src="i/expressions/face-icon-small-smile.gif" border="0">

Also, I can send you what I have put together for my various docs....if you would like that.

1: Mediators Inflamm. 2004 Apr;13(2):111-7. Links
Anti-inflammatory and immunomodulating effects of clarithromycin in patients with cystic fibrosis lung disease.

Pukhalsky AL,
Shmarina GV,
Kapranov NI,
Kokarovtseva SN,
Pukhalskaya D,
Kashirskaja NJ.
Research Center for Medical Genetics, Moscow, Russia. [email protected]
BACKGROUND AND AIM: Macrolide antibiotics are widely used in the treatment of suppurative lung diseases including cystic fibrosis (CF), the most common inherited fatal disease in the Caucasian population. This condition is characterized by secondary Pseudomonas infection resulting in neutrophil infiltration within the airways. The aim of the study was to investigate the evolution of inflammatory process in CF patients receiving long-term clarithromycin therapy. METHODS: Twenty-seven CF patients (mean age, 12 years) were enrolled into the study. Beside the basic therapy the patients were treated with clarithromycin at a dose of 250 mg every other day orally. All patients were routinely examined every 3 months. Blood and sputum were collected before clarithromycin treatment and then again 3, 6 and 12 months after the drug prescription. Cytokine concentrations (tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin-8, interleukin-4, interferon-gamma) in the sputum and plasma were assayed. Peripheral blood lymphocyte response to phytohemagglutinin was also evaluated. RESULTS: Clarithromycin treatment resulted in a marked reduction of the cytokine levels both in the sputum and plasma specimens. At the same time, the interferon-gamma/interleukin-4 ratio has been significantly elevated. In addition, a sustained increase of peripheral blood lymphocyte response to phytohemagglutinin was demonstrated. These changes were associated with a significant improvement of the lung function. CONCLUSIONS:<b> The beneficial effect of the prolonged treatment of CF patients with a 14-membered ring macrolide antibiotic clarithromycin seems to be associated not only with down-regulation of the inflammatory response, but also with immunological changes including the switch from Th2 to Th1 type response.</b>

1: Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2007 Apr 6;355(2):471-6. Epub 2007 Feb 7. Links
Allicin-induced suppression of Mycobacterium tuberculosis 85B mRNA in human monocytes.

Hasan N,
Siddiqui MU,
Toossi Z,
Khan S,
Iqbal J,
Islam N.
Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, J.N. Medical College, A.M.U., Aligarh 202002, U.P., India.
Despite of encountering a robust immune response, Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) successfully survives and persists in the human host. We investigated the early regulation of MTB 85B gene by allicin in MTB-infected human monocytes. During the first 24h of infection, levels of both MTB 85B intracellular mRNA and secreted protein were significantly down-regulated by allicin in a dose-dependent manner, which was mediated by inhibition of glutathione and NF-kappaB pathway. Allicin-induced MTB 85B suppression correlated with suppression of TNF-alpha released from infected monocytes. <b>The allicin-induced up-regulation of glutathione and IFN-gamma with simultaneous decrease in TNF-alpha supports the anti-inflammatory property of allicin by elicitation of protective immune response. Thus, allicin may prove to be valuable in the containment of MTB and therefore be useful as an adjunct in treatment of tuberculosis.</b>
PMID: 17303073 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Differential cytokine profile in children with cystic fibrosis.

Brazova J,
Sediva A,
Pospisilova D,
Vavrova V,
Pohunek P,
Macek M Jr,
Bartunkova J,
Lauschmann H.
Institute of Immunology, University Hospital Motol, Prague, Czech Republic. [email protected]
The previously observed occurrence of antineutrophil cytoplasmic autoantibodies (ANCA) in patients who have cystic fibrosis (CF), together with the reported decrease in IgG2, a Th1-controlled isotype, suggests a potential for Th1/Th2 imbalance in CF patients with a possible Th2 predominance. 48 CF patients and 16 controls had levels of IFNgamma, IL-4, and IL-10 measured in supernatants of whole blood cell cultures stimulated by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and phytohemaglutinine (PHA). The patients were divided into 2 groups: "low responders", having negligible secretion of cytokines (IFNgamma: 10.0-200.0 pg/ml, IL-4: 0.0-0.3 pg/ml) and "high responders", producing high levels of both IFNgamma (500.0-2000.0 pg/ml) and IL-4 (1.0-200.0 pg/ml). <b>There was a statistically significant (P < 0.01) deterioration of lung function measured by an FEV(1) decline by 11.2% over 3 years in the "low responder" group. 10 of 16 "low responders" had chronic lung infections with P. aeruginosa while such infection was less prevalent in the "high responder" group where only 13 of 32 CF patients had positive cultures. A shift towards Th2 response was observed in the "high responder" group as children chronically infected with P. aeruginosa had greater IL-4 production than non-infected CF patients within the same cohort. ANCA autoantibodies were found only in the "high responder" group. Th2 immune response predominance in a subset of CF patients is associated with chronic P. aeruginosa infection.
</b>PMID: 15885645 [PubMed -

1: J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2007 Jan;119(1):192-8. Epub 2006 Oct 23. Links
Probiotics and prebiotic galacto-oligosaccharides in the prevention of allergic diseases: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.

Kukkonen K,
Savilahti E,
Haahtela T,
Juntunen-Backman K,
Korpela R,
Poussa T,
Tuure T,
Kuitunen M.
Skin and Allergy Hospital, University of Helsinki, Finland. [email protected]
BACKGROUND: The increase in allergic diseases is attributed to a relative lack of microbial stimulation of the infantile gut immune system. Probiotics, live health-promoting microbes, might offer such stimulation. OBJECTIVE: We studied the effect of a mixture of 4 probiotic bacterial strains along with prebiotic galacto-oligosaccharides in preventing allergic diseases. METHODS: We randomized 1223 pregnant women carrying high-risk children to use a probiotic preparation or a placebo for 2 to 4 weeks before delivery. Their infants received the same probiotics plus galacto-oligosaccharides (n = 461) or a placebo (n = 464) for 6 months. At 2 years, we evaluated the cumulative incidence of allergic diseases (food allergy, eczema, asthma, and allergic rhinitis) and IgE sensitization (positive skin prick test response or serum antigen-specific IgE level >0.7 kU/L). Fecal bacteria were analyzed during treatment and at age 2 years. RESULTS: Probiotic treatment compared with placebo showed no effect on the cumulative incidence of allergic diseases but tended to reduce IgE-associated (atopic) diseases (odds ratio [OR], 0.71; 95% CI, 0.50-1.00; P = .052). Probiotic treatment reduced eczema (OR, 0.74; 95% CI, 0.55-0.98; P = .035) and atopic eczema (OR, 0.66; 95% CI, 0.46-0.95; P = .025). Lactobacilli and bifidobacteria more frequently (P < .001) colonized the guts of supplemented infants. CONCLUSION: Probiotic treatment showed no effect on the incidence of all allergic diseases by age 2 years but significantly prevented eczema and especially atopic eczema. The results suggest an inverse association between atopic diseases and colonization of the gut by probiotics. CLINICAL IMPLICATIONS: The prevention of atopic eczema in high-risk infants is possible by modulating the infant's gut microbiota with probiotics and prebiotics.

: APMIS. 2005 Jun;113(6):400-9. Links
Serum concentrations of GM-CSF and G-CSF correlate with the Th1/Th2 cytokine response in cystic fibrosis patients with chronic Pseudomonas aeruginosa lung infection.

Moser C,
Jensen PO,
Pressler T,
Frederiksen B,
Lanng S,
Kharazmi A,
Koch C,
Hoiby N.
Department of Clinical Microbiology, Rigshospitalet, University Hospital, Copenhagen, Denmark. [email protected]
<b>The inflammation in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients with chronic Pseudomonas aeruginosa lung infection is dominated by polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs). There seems to be a relationship between the PMN-dominated inflammation, pronounced antibody production and a Th2-dominated response</b>. Apart from mobilizing monocytes and PMNs from the bone marrow, GM-CSF, G-CSF and IL-3 select subsets of dendritic cells, which subsequently induce distinct Th responses. Therefore, the present study examines the correlation between the mobilizing cytokines in serum and the Th responses. The IFN-gamma and IL-4 production by peripheral blood mononuclear cells, and the concentrations of GM-CSF and G-CSF in serum as well as lung function, were determined in 37 CF patients with and 6 CF patients without chronic P. aeruginosa lung infection. <b>The GM-CSF/G-CSF ratio correlated both with the IFN-gamma production and good lung function. In addition, an inverse correlation between IL-3 and IFN-gamma was observed. The results indicate involvement of endogenous GM-CSF, G-CSF and IL-3 in the skewed Th response in CF, and change to a Th1-dominated response might be achieved with GM-CSF treatment.
</b>PMID: 1599615

New Lactococcus strain with immunomodulatory activity: Enhancement of Th1-type immune response
Auteur(s) / Author(s)
KIMOTO Hiromi ; MIZUMACHI Koko ; OKAMOTO Takashi ; KURISAKI Jun-Ichi ;
Résumé / Abstract
Few studies exist dealing with the probiotic activity of lactococci, which are commonly used as starter bacteria in the manufacture of many kinds of fermented dairy products. Fifteen strains of the genus Lactococcus were examined for their probiotic activities, such as immunomodulatory effects. Six strains induced the production of cytokines (IL-12, IL-6, and TNF-?) in macrophage-like cell line J774.1, and the highest induction was observed with Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis G50. The cytokine induction in the J774.1 cell line was almost entirely sustained after heat-killing of the strain. Spleen cells from BALB/c mice fed G50 culture produced more IL-12 and IFN-? and slightly less IL-4 and IL-6 than the control (i.e., without strain G50), indicating that strain G50 can enhance Th1-type immune response in vivo. The effect of the oral administration of strain G50 on antibody response in mice was also investigated. Mice were immunized with ovomucoid (OVM), a potent egg allergen, and the antibody level in the serum was then determined. The total IgE antibody level in the group treated with strain G50 was significantly lower than that of the control. The response of OVM-specific IgG1 and IgE antibodies tended to be low in the group that was administered strain G50, compared with the response of the control group. These results suggest that strain G50 has an ability to suppress the Th2 response. Thus, Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis G50 is a potential probiotic strain for the suppression of hypersensitive reactions caused by the Th2 response.

: J Agric Food Chem. 2006 Mar 8;54(5):1822-8. Links
Characterization of the volatile composition of essential oils of some lamiaceae spices and the antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of the entire oils.

Bozin B,
Mimica-Dukic N,
Simin N,
Anackov G.
Department of Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, University of Novi Sad, Serbia and Montenegro.
The essential oils of Ocimum basilicum L., Origanum vulgare L., and Thymus vulgaris L. were analyzed by means of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and assayed for their antioxidant and antimicrobial activities. The antioxidant activity was evaluated as a free radical scavenging capacity (RSC), together with effects on lipid peroxidation (LP). RSC was assessed measuring the scavenging activity of the essential oils on 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazil (DPPH(*)) and OH(*) radicals. Effects on LP were evaluated following the activities of essential oils in Fe(2+)/ascorbate and Fe(2+)/H(2)O(2) systems of induction. Essential oils exhibited very strong RSCs, reducing the DPPH radical formation (IC(50)) in the range from 0.17 (oregano) to 0.39 microg/mL (basil). The essential oil of T. vulgaris exhibited the highest OH radical scavenging activity, although none of the examined essential oils reached 50% of neutralization (IC(50)). All of the tested essential oils strongly inhibited LP, induced either by Fe(2+)/ascorbate or by Fe(2+)/H(2)O(2). The antimicrobial activity was tested against 13 bacterial strains and six fungi. <b>The most effective antibacterial activity was expressed by the essential oil of oregano, even on multiresistant strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli. A significant rate of antifungal activity of all of the examined essential oils was also exhibited.</b>

Int Arch Allergy Immunol. 2007 Feb 9;143(3):237-244 [Epub ahead of print] Links
Probiotics Have a Different Immunomodulatory Potential in vitro versus ex vivo upon Oral Administration in Children with Food Allergy.

Flinterman AE,
Knol EF,
van Ieperen-van Dijk AG,
Timmerman HM,
Knulst AC,
Bruijnzeel-Koomen CA,
Pasmans SG,
van Hoffen E.
Department of Dermatology and Allergology, UMC Utrecht, Utrecht, The Netherlands.
Background: Previous studies suggest that administration of probiotics in vitro can stimulate regulatory and Th1 immune responses. We studied both the in vitro immunological effects of probiotics and the ex vivo immunological effects after oral administration of probiotics in children with food allergy, a Th2-mediated disease. Methods: Thirteen children were enrolled. Probiotics (n = 7) or placebo (n = 6) were orally administered during 3 months. At baseline and after 1 and 3 months, peripheral blood mononuclear cells were stimulated with crude peanut extract, anti-CD3, or anti-CD40 and IL-4 in the presence (in vitro response) or absence (ex vivo response) of probiotics. The proliferation and production of IFN-gamma, IL-5, IL-13, IL-10, TNF-alpha, IL-6 and IgE were analyzed. Sensitization to peanut, cow's milk and hen's egg was determined before and after treatment. Results: The in vitro addition of probiotics to peripheral blood mononuclear cell cultures resulted in enhanced proliferation and production of IFN-gamma, IL-10 and TNF-alpha. After oral treatment, proliferation in the presence of probiotics increased, whereas in vitro IgE production decreased in the probiotics group compared to baseline. The ex vivo production of IL-10, TNF-alpha and IL-6 tended to decrease. Th1 and Th2 cytokines were not altered. Sensitization remained unchanged. Conclusion: Probiotics enhanced the production of Th1 and regulatory cytokines in vitro. Oral administration of probiotics resulted in a slightly decreased ex vivo production of IL-10, TNF-alpha and IL-6. This indicates that probiotics have a different potential to modulate the immune response in vitro versus ex vivo.

: Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol. 1995;252 Suppl 1:S59-60. Links
Cytokines in neutrophil-dominated airway inflammation in patients with cystic fibrosis.

Schuster A,
Haarmann A,
Wahn V.
Department of Pediatrics, University of Dusseldorf, Germany.
Bronchopulmonary disease in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) is a paradigm of neutrophil-dominated airway inflammation. We hypothesized that proinflammatory cytokines contribute to a localized neutrophil-dominated inflammatory state as present in CF airways. In a cross-sectional study, we analyzed 63 sputum samples from 33 CF patients for concentrations of the cytokines interleukin-1 alpha (IL-1 alpha), IL-1 beta, IL-8, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), and granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) by means of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Furthermore, the activity of neutrophil elastase (NE) in the sputum samples was determined using a specific chromogenic substrate. Compared to sputum samples from 10 healthy controls, there were significantly increased concentrations of IL-1 beta, IL-8 and TNF-alpha in the CF sputum samples. The concentration of IL-8 correlated significantly with NE activity in the CF sputum samples. In CF patients with airways chronically colonized with Pseudomonas aeruginosa, IL-8 concentrations in sputum were significantly enhanced. In glucocorticoid-treated patients, IL-1 alpha and G-CSF sputum concentrations were significantly lower when compared to levels in the other patients. These results show that there are high concentrations of proinflammatory cytokines in CF airways which may contribute to the localized neutrophil-dominated inflammatory state found clinically.

J Cyst Fibros. 2006 Aug;5(3):145-51. Epub 2006 Feb 28. Links
Increased serum concentration of G-CSF in cystic fibrosis patients with chronic Pseudomonas aeruginosa pneumonia.

Jensen PO,
Moser C,
Kharazmi A,
Presler T,
Koch C,
Hoiby N.
Department of Clinical Microbiology, University of Copenhagen, Denmark. [email protected] <[email protected]>
BACKGROUND: Chronic Pseudomonas aeruginosa lung infection is the major reason for premature death in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). Infected patients experience a progressive deterioration of the lung tissue caused by a persistent accumulation of PMNs. We investigated if the pulmonary accumulation of PMNs is reflected as a migration of PMNs through the blood in chronically infected CF patients. METHODS: Blood and sputum samples from 37 stable, chronically (CF+P) and 6 non-infected (CF-P) CF patients without exacerbations were compared using FACS, leukocyte counting, and ELISA. Within the CF+P patients, the blood parameters were compared to the lung function (FEV1 and FVC) and to the sputum. Similar measurements were performed on 15 chronically infected CF patients before and after elective antibiotic treatment. RESULTS: In the CF+P patients the concentration of G-CSF in the sera and PMNs in the blood was increased and correlated to poor lung function. However, only the concentration of G-CSF in the sera was correlated to the concentration of TNF-alpha in the sputum. After the antibiotic treatment, the lung function was improved and the concentration of PMNs in the blood and G-CSF in the sera was reduced. CONCLUSION: <b>G-CSF in the sera may contribute to the pulmonary inflammation in CF patients with chronic P. aeruginosa lung infection by regulating the number of PMNs available for migration and may be considered as an indicator of clinical status.</b>

dramamama
06-02-2007, 11:06 PM
PS..Allicin is the active ingredient in garlic....

Oh, and, notice that a lot of the studies are in EUROPE.....interesting. They are catching on before we are over here....

Microbiology. 2005 Dec;151(Pt 12):3873-80. Links
Garlic blocks quorum sensing and promotes rapid clearing of pulmonary Pseudomonas aeruginosa infections.

Bjarnsholt T, Jensen PŘ, Rasmussen TB, Christophersen L, Calum H, Hentzer M, Hougen HP, Rygaard J, Moser C, Eberl L, Hřiby N, Givskov M.
Centre for Biomedical Microbiology, BioCentrum, Technical University of Denmark, DK-2800 Lyngby, Denmark.
The opportunistic human pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa is the predominant micro-organism of chronic lung infections in cystic fibrosis patients. P. aeruginosa colonizes the lungs by forming biofilm microcolonies throughout the lung. Quorum sensing (QS) renders the biofilm bacteria highly tolerant to otherwise lethal doses of antibiotics, and protects against the bactericidal activity of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs). It has been previously demonstrated that QS is inhibited by garlic extract. In this study, the synergistic effects of garlic and tobramycin, and PMNs activities have been evaluated. P. aeruginosa was grown in vitro in continuous-culture once-through flow chambers with and without garlic extract. The garlic-treated biofilms were susceptible to both tobramycin and PMN grazing. Furthermore, the PMNs showed an increase in respiratory burst activation, when incubated with the garlic-treated biofilm. Garlic extract was administered as treatment for a mouse pulmonary infection model. Mice were treated with garlic extract or placebo for 7 days, with the initial 2 days being prophylactic before P. aeruginosa was instilled in the left lung of the mice. Bacteriology, mortality, histopathology and cytokine production were used as indicators. The garlic treatment initially provoked a higher degree of inflammation, and significantly improved clearing of the infecting bacteria. The results indicate that a QS-inhibitory extract of garlic renders P. aeruginosa sensitive to tobramycin, respiratory burst and phagocytosis by PMNs, as well as leading to an improved outcome of pulmonary infections.

dramamama
06-02-2007, 11:06 PM
PS..Allicin is the active ingredient in garlic....

Oh, and, notice that a lot of the studies are in EUROPE.....interesting. They are catching on before we are over here....

Microbiology. 2005 Dec;151(Pt 12):3873-80. Links
Garlic blocks quorum sensing and promotes rapid clearing of pulmonary Pseudomonas aeruginosa infections.

Bjarnsholt T, Jensen PŘ, Rasmussen TB, Christophersen L, Calum H, Hentzer M, Hougen HP, Rygaard J, Moser C, Eberl L, Hřiby N, Givskov M.
Centre for Biomedical Microbiology, BioCentrum, Technical University of Denmark, DK-2800 Lyngby, Denmark.
The opportunistic human pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa is the predominant micro-organism of chronic lung infections in cystic fibrosis patients. P. aeruginosa colonizes the lungs by forming biofilm microcolonies throughout the lung. Quorum sensing (QS) renders the biofilm bacteria highly tolerant to otherwise lethal doses of antibiotics, and protects against the bactericidal activity of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs). It has been previously demonstrated that QS is inhibited by garlic extract. In this study, the synergistic effects of garlic and tobramycin, and PMNs activities have been evaluated. P. aeruginosa was grown in vitro in continuous-culture once-through flow chambers with and without garlic extract. The garlic-treated biofilms were susceptible to both tobramycin and PMN grazing. Furthermore, the PMNs showed an increase in respiratory burst activation, when incubated with the garlic-treated biofilm. Garlic extract was administered as treatment for a mouse pulmonary infection model. Mice were treated with garlic extract or placebo for 7 days, with the initial 2 days being prophylactic before P. aeruginosa was instilled in the left lung of the mice. Bacteriology, mortality, histopathology and cytokine production were used as indicators. The garlic treatment initially provoked a higher degree of inflammation, and significantly improved clearing of the infecting bacteria. The results indicate that a QS-inhibitory extract of garlic renders P. aeruginosa sensitive to tobramycin, respiratory burst and phagocytosis by PMNs, as well as leading to an improved outcome of pulmonary infections.

dramamama
06-02-2007, 11:06 PM
PS..Allicin is the active ingredient in garlic....

Oh, and, notice that a lot of the studies are in EUROPE.....interesting. They are catching on before we are over here....

Microbiology. 2005 Dec;151(Pt 12):3873-80. Links
Garlic blocks quorum sensing and promotes rapid clearing of pulmonary Pseudomonas aeruginosa infections.

Bjarnsholt T, Jensen PŘ, Rasmussen TB, Christophersen L, Calum H, Hentzer M, Hougen HP, Rygaard J, Moser C, Eberl L, Hřiby N, Givskov M.
Centre for Biomedical Microbiology, BioCentrum, Technical University of Denmark, DK-2800 Lyngby, Denmark.
The opportunistic human pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa is the predominant micro-organism of chronic lung infections in cystic fibrosis patients. P. aeruginosa colonizes the lungs by forming biofilm microcolonies throughout the lung. Quorum sensing (QS) renders the biofilm bacteria highly tolerant to otherwise lethal doses of antibiotics, and protects against the bactericidal activity of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs). It has been previously demonstrated that QS is inhibited by garlic extract. In this study, the synergistic effects of garlic and tobramycin, and PMNs activities have been evaluated. P. aeruginosa was grown in vitro in continuous-culture once-through flow chambers with and without garlic extract. The garlic-treated biofilms were susceptible to both tobramycin and PMN grazing. Furthermore, the PMNs showed an increase in respiratory burst activation, when incubated with the garlic-treated biofilm. Garlic extract was administered as treatment for a mouse pulmonary infection model. Mice were treated with garlic extract or placebo for 7 days, with the initial 2 days being prophylactic before P. aeruginosa was instilled in the left lung of the mice. Bacteriology, mortality, histopathology and cytokine production were used as indicators. The garlic treatment initially provoked a higher degree of inflammation, and significantly improved clearing of the infecting bacteria. The results indicate that a QS-inhibitory extract of garlic renders P. aeruginosa sensitive to tobramycin, respiratory burst and phagocytosis by PMNs, as well as leading to an improved outcome of pulmonary infections.

dramamama
06-02-2007, 11:06 PM
PS..Allicin is the active ingredient in garlic....

Oh, and, notice that a lot of the studies are in EUROPE.....interesting. They are catching on before we are over here....

Microbiology. 2005 Dec;151(Pt 12):3873-80. Links
Garlic blocks quorum sensing and promotes rapid clearing of pulmonary Pseudomonas aeruginosa infections.

Bjarnsholt T, Jensen PŘ, Rasmussen TB, Christophersen L, Calum H, Hentzer M, Hougen HP, Rygaard J, Moser C, Eberl L, Hřiby N, Givskov M.
Centre for Biomedical Microbiology, BioCentrum, Technical University of Denmark, DK-2800 Lyngby, Denmark.
The opportunistic human pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa is the predominant micro-organism of chronic lung infections in cystic fibrosis patients. P. aeruginosa colonizes the lungs by forming biofilm microcolonies throughout the lung. Quorum sensing (QS) renders the biofilm bacteria highly tolerant to otherwise lethal doses of antibiotics, and protects against the bactericidal activity of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs). It has been previously demonstrated that QS is inhibited by garlic extract. In this study, the synergistic effects of garlic and tobramycin, and PMNs activities have been evaluated. P. aeruginosa was grown in vitro in continuous-culture once-through flow chambers with and without garlic extract. The garlic-treated biofilms were susceptible to both tobramycin and PMN grazing. Furthermore, the PMNs showed an increase in respiratory burst activation, when incubated with the garlic-treated biofilm. Garlic extract was administered as treatment for a mouse pulmonary infection model. Mice were treated with garlic extract or placebo for 7 days, with the initial 2 days being prophylactic before P. aeruginosa was instilled in the left lung of the mice. Bacteriology, mortality, histopathology and cytokine production were used as indicators. The garlic treatment initially provoked a higher degree of inflammation, and significantly improved clearing of the infecting bacteria. The results indicate that a QS-inhibitory extract of garlic renders P. aeruginosa sensitive to tobramycin, respiratory burst and phagocytosis by PMNs, as well as leading to an improved outcome of pulmonary infections.

dramamama
06-02-2007, 11:06 PM
PS..Allicin is the active ingredient in garlic....

Oh, and, notice that a lot of the studies are in EUROPE.....interesting. They are catching on before we are over here....

Microbiology. 2005 Dec;151(Pt 12):3873-80. Links
Garlic blocks quorum sensing and promotes rapid clearing of pulmonary Pseudomonas aeruginosa infections.

Bjarnsholt T, Jensen PŘ, Rasmussen TB, Christophersen L, Calum H, Hentzer M, Hougen HP, Rygaard J, Moser C, Eberl L, Hřiby N, Givskov M.
Centre for Biomedical Microbiology, BioCentrum, Technical University of Denmark, DK-2800 Lyngby, Denmark.
The opportunistic human pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa is the predominant micro-organism of chronic lung infections in cystic fibrosis patients. P. aeruginosa colonizes the lungs by forming biofilm microcolonies throughout the lung. Quorum sensing (QS) renders the biofilm bacteria highly tolerant to otherwise lethal doses of antibiotics, and protects against the bactericidal activity of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs). It has been previously demonstrated that QS is inhibited by garlic extract. In this study, the synergistic effects of garlic and tobramycin, and PMNs activities have been evaluated. P. aeruginosa was grown in vitro in continuous-culture once-through flow chambers with and without garlic extract. The garlic-treated biofilms were susceptible to both tobramycin and PMN grazing. Furthermore, the PMNs showed an increase in respiratory burst activation, when incubated with the garlic-treated biofilm. Garlic extract was administered as treatment for a mouse pulmonary infection model. Mice were treated with garlic extract or placebo for 7 days, with the initial 2 days being prophylactic before P. aeruginosa was instilled in the left lung of the mice. Bacteriology, mortality, histopathology and cytokine production were used as indicators. The garlic treatment initially provoked a higher degree of inflammation, and significantly improved clearing of the infecting bacteria. The results indicate that a QS-inhibitory extract of garlic renders P. aeruginosa sensitive to tobramycin, respiratory burst and phagocytosis by PMNs, as well as leading to an improved outcome of pulmonary infections.

dramamama
06-02-2007, 11:06 PM
PS..Allicin is the active ingredient in garlic....

Oh, and, notice that a lot of the studies are in EUROPE.....interesting. They are catching on before we are over here....

Microbiology. 2005 Dec;151(Pt 12):3873-80. Links
Garlic blocks quorum sensing and promotes rapid clearing of pulmonary Pseudomonas aeruginosa infections.

Bjarnsholt T, Jensen PŘ, Rasmussen TB, Christophersen L, Calum H, Hentzer M, Hougen HP, Rygaard J, Moser C, Eberl L, Hřiby N, Givskov M.
Centre for Biomedical Microbiology, BioCentrum, Technical University of Denmark, DK-2800 Lyngby, Denmark.
The opportunistic human pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa is the predominant micro-organism of chronic lung infections in cystic fibrosis patients. P. aeruginosa colonizes the lungs by forming biofilm microcolonies throughout the lung. Quorum sensing (QS) renders the biofilm bacteria highly tolerant to otherwise lethal doses of antibiotics, and protects against the bactericidal activity of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs). It has been previously demonstrated that QS is inhibited by garlic extract. In this study, the synergistic effects of garlic and tobramycin, and PMNs activities have been evaluated. P. aeruginosa was grown in vitro in continuous-culture once-through flow chambers with and without garlic extract. The garlic-treated biofilms were susceptible to both tobramycin and PMN grazing. Furthermore, the PMNs showed an increase in respiratory burst activation, when incubated with the garlic-treated biofilm. Garlic extract was administered as treatment for a mouse pulmonary infection model. Mice were treated with garlic extract or placebo for 7 days, with the initial 2 days being prophylactic before P. aeruginosa was instilled in the left lung of the mice. Bacteriology, mortality, histopathology and cytokine production were used as indicators. The garlic treatment initially provoked a higher degree of inflammation, and significantly improved clearing of the infecting bacteria. The results indicate that a QS-inhibitory extract of garlic renders P. aeruginosa sensitive to tobramycin, respiratory burst and phagocytosis by PMNs, as well as leading to an improved outcome of pulmonary infections.

NoExcuses
06-02-2007, 11:20 PM
<div class="FTQUOTE"><begin quote><i>Originally posted by: <b>dramamama</b></i>

PS..Allicin is the active ingredient in garlic....



Oh, and, notice that a lot of the studies are in EUROPE.....interesting. They are catching on before we are over here....
.</end quote></div>


Part of the reason is socialized medicine. They can come up with all the novel compounds in the world, but many governments won't pay for them.

Notice how TOBI, Pulmozyme, the Vest were from US companies.

So, they take a look at supplements. HTS? Australia <img src="i/expressions/face-icon-small-smile.gif" border="0"> Moss is using a Canadian company for his NAC study.

This isn't 100% of the reason, of course, but innovation always follows the path of least resistance.....

NoExcuses
06-02-2007, 11:20 PM
<div class="FTQUOTE"><begin quote><i>Originally posted by: <b>dramamama</b></i>

PS..Allicin is the active ingredient in garlic....



Oh, and, notice that a lot of the studies are in EUROPE.....interesting. They are catching on before we are over here....
.</end quote></div>


Part of the reason is socialized medicine. They can come up with all the novel compounds in the world, but many governments won't pay for them.

Notice how TOBI, Pulmozyme, the Vest were from US companies.

So, they take a look at supplements. HTS? Australia <img src="i/expressions/face-icon-small-smile.gif" border="0"> Moss is using a Canadian company for his NAC study.

This isn't 100% of the reason, of course, but innovation always follows the path of least resistance.....

NoExcuses
06-02-2007, 11:20 PM
<div class="FTQUOTE"><begin quote><i>Originally posted by: <b>dramamama</b></i>

PS..Allicin is the active ingredient in garlic....



Oh, and, notice that a lot of the studies are in EUROPE.....interesting. They are catching on before we are over here....
.</end quote></div>


Part of the reason is socialized medicine. They can come up with all the novel compounds in the world, but many governments won't pay for them.

Notice how TOBI, Pulmozyme, the Vest were from US companies.

So, they take a look at supplements. HTS? Australia <img src="i/expressions/face-icon-small-smile.gif" border="0"> Moss is using a Canadian company for his NAC study.

This isn't 100% of the reason, of course, but innovation always follows the path of least resistance.....

NoExcuses
06-02-2007, 11:20 PM
<div class="FTQUOTE"><begin quote><i>Originally posted by: <b>dramamama</b></i>

PS..Allicin is the active ingredient in garlic....



Oh, and, notice that a lot of the studies are in EUROPE.....interesting. They are catching on before we are over here....
.</end quote></div>


Part of the reason is socialized medicine. They can come up with all the novel compounds in the world, but many governments won't pay for them.

Notice how TOBI, Pulmozyme, the Vest were from US companies.

So, they take a look at supplements. HTS? Australia <img src="i/expressions/face-icon-small-smile.gif" border="0"> Moss is using a Canadian company for his NAC study.

This isn't 100% of the reason, of course, but innovation always follows the path of least resistance.....

NoExcuses
06-02-2007, 11:20 PM
<div class="FTQUOTE"><begin quote><i>Originally posted by: <b>dramamama</b></i>

PS..Allicin is the active ingredient in garlic....



Oh, and, notice that a lot of the studies are in EUROPE.....interesting. They are catching on before we are over here....
.</end quote>


Part of the reason is socialized medicine. They can come up with all the novel compounds in the world, but many governments won't pay for them.

Notice how TOBI, Pulmozyme, the Vest were from US companies.

So, they take a look at supplements. HTS? Australia <img src="i/expressions/face-icon-small-smile.gif" border="0"> Moss is using a Canadian company for his NAC study.

This isn't 100% of the reason, of course, but innovation always follows the path of least resistance.....

NoExcuses
06-02-2007, 11:20 PM
<div class="FTQUOTE"><begin quote><i>Originally posted by: <b>dramamama</b></i>

PS..Allicin is the active ingredient in garlic....



Oh, and, notice that a lot of the studies are in EUROPE.....interesting. They are catching on before we are over here....
.</end quote>


Part of the reason is socialized medicine. They can come up with all the novel compounds in the world, but many governments won't pay for them.

Notice how TOBI, Pulmozyme, the Vest were from US companies.

So, they take a look at supplements. HTS? Australia <img src="i/expressions/face-icon-small-smile.gif" border="0"> Moss is using a Canadian company for his NAC study.

This isn't 100% of the reason, of course, but innovation always follows the path of least resistance.....

Landy
06-03-2007, 12:53 AM
I believe it's been known for a few years that garlic is good for us CFs.

I tried to take it a couple of years ago after I had read it's good to combat MRSA. I quit because I started to smell like garlic.

I remember a thread about garlic some time ago (I can't locate it now) Anyway, I thought it was my breath smelling like garlic, but someone (I think WinAce) mentioned that the garlic smell wasn't coming from my breath, but rather from my lungs. I remember thinking this sounded preposterous, but I was able to verify this elsewhere....I should have known better then to have questioned him...


Just a side note: I have also read that it can cause some blood thinning, so I assume that folks with hemoptysis would need to watch how much they took?

Landy
06-03-2007, 12:53 AM
I believe it's been known for a few years that garlic is good for us CFs.

I tried to take it a couple of years ago after I had read it's good to combat MRSA. I quit because I started to smell like garlic.

I remember a thread about garlic some time ago (I can't locate it now) Anyway, I thought it was my breath smelling like garlic, but someone (I think WinAce) mentioned that the garlic smell wasn't coming from my breath, but rather from my lungs. I remember thinking this sounded preposterous, but I was able to verify this elsewhere....I should have known better then to have questioned him...


Just a side note: I have also read that it can cause some blood thinning, so I assume that folks with hemoptysis would need to watch how much they took?

Landy
06-03-2007, 12:53 AM
I believe it's been known for a few years that garlic is good for us CFs.

I tried to take it a couple of years ago after I had read it's good to combat MRSA. I quit because I started to smell like garlic.

I remember a thread about garlic some time ago (I can't locate it now) Anyway, I thought it was my breath smelling like garlic, but someone (I think WinAce) mentioned that the garlic smell wasn't coming from my breath, but rather from my lungs. I remember thinking this sounded preposterous, but I was able to verify this elsewhere....I should have known better then to have questioned him...


Just a side note: I have also read that it can cause some blood thinning, so I assume that folks with hemoptysis would need to watch how much they took?

Landy
06-03-2007, 12:53 AM
I believe it's been known for a few years that garlic is good for us CFs.

I tried to take it a couple of years ago after I had read it's good to combat MRSA. I quit because I started to smell like garlic.

I remember a thread about garlic some time ago (I can't locate it now) Anyway, I thought it was my breath smelling like garlic, but someone (I think WinAce) mentioned that the garlic smell wasn't coming from my breath, but rather from my lungs. I remember thinking this sounded preposterous, but I was able to verify this elsewhere....I should have known better then to have questioned him...


Just a side note: I have also read that it can cause some blood thinning, so I assume that folks with hemoptysis would need to watch how much they took?

Landy
06-03-2007, 12:53 AM
I believe it's been known for a few years that garlic is good for us CFs.

I tried to take it a couple of years ago after I had read it's good to combat MRSA. I quit because I started to smell like garlic.

I remember a thread about garlic some time ago (I can't locate it now) Anyway, I thought it was my breath smelling like garlic, but someone (I think WinAce) mentioned that the garlic smell wasn't coming from my breath, but rather from my lungs. I remember thinking this sounded preposterous, but I was able to verify this elsewhere....I should have known better then to have questioned him...


Just a side note: I have also read that it can cause some blood thinning, so I assume that folks with hemoptysis would need to watch how much they took?

Landy
06-03-2007, 12:53 AM
I believe it's been known for a few years that garlic is good for us CFs.

I tried to take it a couple of years ago after I had read it's good to combat MRSA. I quit because I started to smell like garlic.

I remember a thread about garlic some time ago (I can't locate it now) Anyway, I thought it was my breath smelling like garlic, but someone (I think WinAce) mentioned that the garlic smell wasn't coming from my breath, but rather from my lungs. I remember thinking this sounded preposterous, but I was able to verify this elsewhere....I should have known better then to have questioned him...


Just a side note: I have also read that it can cause some blood thinning, so I assume that folks with hemoptysis would need to watch how much they took?

wuffles
06-03-2007, 02:02 AM
Hrmm, interesting! I take garlic, horseradish and C tablets every day for my sinuses and immune system, which I believe really help. I've cultured PA for quite a few years now and it is still very sensitive to tobramycin.

Anyway, I will keep an eye out for results of the study <img src="i/expressions/face-icon-small-smile.gif" border="0">

wuffles
06-03-2007, 02:02 AM
Hrmm, interesting! I take garlic, horseradish and C tablets every day for my sinuses and immune system, which I believe really help. I've cultured PA for quite a few years now and it is still very sensitive to tobramycin.

Anyway, I will keep an eye out for results of the study <img src="i/expressions/face-icon-small-smile.gif" border="0">

wuffles
06-03-2007, 02:02 AM
Hrmm, interesting! I take garlic, horseradish and C tablets every day for my sinuses and immune system, which I believe really help. I've cultured PA for quite a few years now and it is still very sensitive to tobramycin.

Anyway, I will keep an eye out for results of the study <img src="i/expressions/face-icon-small-smile.gif" border="0">

wuffles
06-03-2007, 02:02 AM
Hrmm, interesting! I take garlic, horseradish and C tablets every day for my sinuses and immune system, which I believe really help. I've cultured PA for quite a few years now and it is still very sensitive to tobramycin.

Anyway, I will keep an eye out for results of the study <img src="i/expressions/face-icon-small-smile.gif" border="0">

wuffles
06-03-2007, 02:02 AM
Hrmm, interesting! I take garlic, horseradish and C tablets every day for my sinuses and immune system, which I believe really help. I've cultured PA for quite a few years now and it is still very sensitive to tobramycin.

Anyway, I will keep an eye out for results of the study <img src="i/expressions/face-icon-small-smile.gif" border="0">

wuffles
06-03-2007, 02:02 AM
Hrmm, interesting! I take garlic, horseradish and C tablets every day for my sinuses and immune system, which I believe really help. I've cultured PA for quite a few years now and it is still very sensitive to tobramycin.

Anyway, I will keep an eye out for results of the study <img src="i/expressions/face-icon-small-smile.gif" border="0">